Originally a Hindu deity, Brahma (Korean: Beomcheon) was incorporated into the Buddhist pantheon and, along with the Hindu god Indra (Korean: Jeseok), became the protector of Buddhist teachings. This work—the only extant early Joseon painting of Brahma—formed a pair with a large painting depicting Indra and her attendants. Such sets played an integral part in Buddhist temple rituals.The Brahma heaven was interpreted as a place of pleasure filled with entertainers and musicians. In this work, the towering Brahma at center is surrounded by figures playing a mouth organ, a long transverse flute, a two-stringed violin (bottom row, left), a four-stringed lute with a crooked neck, wood clappers, and a triangular wind instrument made of clay (bottom row, right). To complete the festive scene, ceremonial fans and bejeweled canopies float above, held by assistants in the top row.Large-scale Buddhist paintings on hemp were commissioned by nonroyals, as members of the favored more delicate, costly silk. Whatever the material, Buddhist paintings from the early Joseon period are remarkable for their very existence, artistic quality and vibrancy, given the Joseon state's official suppression of Buddhism and promotion of neo-Confucian ideology.