Zhao Lingrang (also known as Zhao Danian), a scion of the Song imperial family, was forbidden by dynastic statutes to travel any distance from the capital; he therefore painted mostly intimate, local, suburban scenery. As a collector, Zhao learned painting by studying ancient masterworks rather than the often wild nature of northern China, as did his great contemporaries such as Guo Xi (ca. 1000–ca. 1090). Turning his limitations into a virtue, Zhao strove to capture the mood of single lyrical moments with all their particular qualities, thereby presaging the more intimate "mind landscapes" of the Southern Song and Yuan periods.