Bryson Burroughs. Letter to Ambroise Vollard. April 2, 1913, requests any information regarding this picture.
Bryson Burroughs. Letter to Walter Pach. March 24, 1913 [published in Ref. Perlman 2002, p. 120], requests information about this picture, adding that he may also write to Vollard for its history.
Bryson Burroughs. Letter to John W. Alexander. February 28, 1913, asks Alexander [member of the MMA Purchasing Committee] to see this painting at the Armory Show.
B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "Recent Accessions: A Landscape by Cézanne." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 8 (May 1913), pp. 108–9, ill., calls it "La Colline des pauvres" and dates it about 1887; notes that it was presumably executed near Cézanne's house in Aix.
[Henry McBride]. "News of Artists New and Old at Metropolitan." New York Sun (May 18, 1913), sec. 6, p. 3, ill., notes the Museum's recent acquisition of this painting from the Armory Show.
Walter Pach. Letter to Bryson Burroughs. March 30, 1913, relates that according to Vollard, Cézanne's son dated this painting to 1887.
Ambroise Vollard. Letter to Bryson Burroughs. May 16, 1913, confirms the location of this picture as "La colline des Pauvres," situated in the environs of Aix-en-Provence.
Cézanne. Paris, 1914, p. 73, pl. LI, calls it "Paysage montagneux (La Colline des fauves [sic])".
Ambroise Vollard. Paul Cézanne. [Eng. ed., 1923]. Paris, 1914, pl. I, illustrates it among works in museum collections.
B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "Nineteenth-Century French Painting." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 13 (August 1918), pp. 180–81, ill.
Georges Rivière. Le Maître Paul Cézanne. Paris, 1923, p. 219, as "Paysage de Provence"; dates it about 1892; describes it as representing "Le petit Roquefavour".
DeWitt H. Parker. The Analysis of Art. New Haven, 1926, p. 6, fig. 1, calls it "The Poorhouse on the Hill".
George Sakier. "La Peinture française du XIXe siècle au 'Metropolitan Museum of Art' de New-York." L'Amour de l'art 7 (June 1926), ill. p. 202.
Fritz Neugass. "Paul Cézanne." Creative Art 9 (October 1931), ill. p. 278.
Lionello Venturi. Cézanne: son art—son oeuvre. Paris, 1936, vol. 1, p. 207, no. 660; vol. 2, pl. 211, no. 660, as "La Colline des pauvres"; dates it 1888–94.
Fritz Novotny. Cézanne und das Ende der Wissenschaftlichen Perspektive. Vienna, 1938, p. 197, no. 33, dates it about 1890 and identifies it as a view of the Domaine Saint-Joseph.
Albert C. Barnes and Violette De Mazia. The Art of Cézanne. New York, 1939, pp. 356–57, 413, no. 110, date it 1888–94; compare the foliage in this picture to that in "Well" (V485, R764; Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.) and "Mont Sainte-Victoire with Viaduct" (MMA 29.100.64).
Henry McBride. "Collecting from a Critical Viewpoint." Art News, section I (The 1939 Annual), 37, no. 22 (February 25, 1939), p. 66, ill., recalls that the Museum's director, Edward Robinson, failed to mention the acquisition of this picture at a press preview.
Jerome Mellquist. "The Armory Show 30 Years Later." Magazine of Art 36 (December 1943), pp. 299, 301, ill., notes that it is the first Cézanne to enter an American museum.
Milton W. Brown. American Painting from the Armory Show to the Depression. Princeton, 1955, p. 94, remarks that this acquisition, by Bryson Burroughs, was a "landmark in the museum's history" but notes that the museum's director, Edward Robinson, was reluctant to acknowledge its purchase.
Exposition pour commémorer le cinquantenaire de la mort de Cézanne. Exh. cat., Pavillon de Vendôme. Aix-en-Provence, 1956, unpaginated, no. 52, ill., dates it 1895–97.
Leopold Reidemeister. Cézanne. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Lempertz. Cologne, 1956, p. 48, no. 25, ill., dates it 1890–94; notes that the St. Joseph estate was once owned by the Jesuits, and describes the location as not far from the Château Noir, on the road to Le Tholonet.
John Richardson. "Cézanne at Aix-en-Provence." Burlington Magazine 98 (November 1956), p. 412, disagrees with the date of 1895–97 given in Exh. Aix-en-Provence 1956, stating that a date of 1890 is more likely.
A. Hyatt Mayor. "The Gifts that Made the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 86, calls it "Poorhouse on the Hill".
The 1913 Armory Show in Retrospect. Exh. cat., Amherst College. Amherst, 1958, pp. 14–15, no. 6, ill., dates it about 1877.
Guy Habasque. "L'armory show." L'Oeil 50 (February 1959), pp. 14–15, ill.
Jean Cassou. Les sources du XXe siècle: Les arts en Europe de 1884 à 1914. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne. 1960, p. 39, no. 84, dates it about 1895–97.
Robert William Ratcliffe. "Cézanne's Working Methods and Their Theoretical Background." PhD diss., University of London, 1960, p. 262, states that aside from this painting, he knows of no other instance where Cézanne's signature includes an acute accent over the first "e".
Paul Cézanne, 1839–1906. Exh. cat., Vienna Österreichische Galerie, Oberes Belvedere. 1961, p. 28, no. 35, dates it about 1895.
Léo Marchutz. Letter to Mrs. Leonard Harris. July 15, 1962, states that the buildings known as the Domaine Saint-Joseph were owned by the Jesuit order until 1902; identifies the chapel, whose roof is depicted here, and the pigeon tower in front of the buildings as still extant, although the convent buildings have since been completely altered; suggests that the local people called the hill "La Colline des pauvres" because the Jesuit monks cared for the poor and suffering.
Milton W. Brown in 1913 Armory Show: 50th Anniversary Exhibition, 1963. Exh. cat., Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica. New York, 1963, pp. 37, 185, no. 217, ill. p. 51, notes that among American buyers at the 1913 Armory show, the MMA paid the highest price for a single work when it purchased this painting.
Nelson A. Rockefeller. "Back to the Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory." Art in America 51 (February 1963), p. 59, ill., dates it about 1877.
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 115–17, ill., tentatively date it about 1895, based on the "feathery" handling and areas of bare canvas; remark that since Cézanne signed this work, he considered it finished, thereby illustrating "his regard for the contrast he achieved by deliberately leaving these places unpainted"; note that the Jesuits owned the depicted buildings until 1901 [see Ref. Marchutz 1962].
Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill.
Frank Elgar. Cézanne. New York, , p. 280, fig. 119, dates it 1888–94.
Sandra Orienti in L'opera completa di Cézanne. [French ed., 1975; English ed., 1985]. Milan, 1970, pp. 116–17, no. 676, ill., dates it 1888–94.
John Rewald. Letter to Everett Fahy. April 5, 1972, tentatively dates it about 1887, and certainly not later than 1890.
Russell Lynes. Good Old Modern: An Intimate Portrait of the Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1973, p. 40.
John Rewald. "Should Hoving Be De-accessioned?" Art in America 61 (January–February 1973), pp. 27, 29, notes that Cézanne's preliminary pencil lines are visible on this canvas; comments that a recent cleaning of this painting revealed a freshness of color that should lead to a revision of the date.
Exposition Cézanne. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Occidental. 1974, unpaginated, no. 38, ill., dates it 1888–90.
Theodore Reff in Cézanne: The Late Work. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, pp. 26–27, 51 n. 83, ill., dates it 1890–94; compares the transparent paint handling to that of a watercolor.
Hélène Seckel in Paris–New York. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne. 1977, p. 277, ill., dates it about 1877.
Richard Shiff. Cézanne and the End of Impressionism. Chicago, 1984, pp. 121–22, 268 n. 44, fig. 29, dates it about 1888–98.
Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 10, 201, 254, ill. (color), dates it 1887, according to Cézanne's son [see Ref. Pach 1913].
John Rewald. Cézanne: A Biography. New York, 1986, p. 273, ill. p. 71.
Sjraar van Heutgen et al. in Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1987, p. 13, fig. 3, dates it about 1895.
John Rewald with the research assistance of Frances Weitzenhoffer. Cézanne and America: Dealers, Collectors, Artists and Critics, 1891–1921. The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, Princeton, 1989, pp. 192, 200, 203–7, 209 n. 46, pp. 325–26, 346, colorpl. IX, dates it 1888–90; discusses the MMA acquisition of this picture, in spite of the reluctance of several trustees; describes this view of the Domaine Saint-Joseph "as perceived from a spot near the terrace of Château Noir between Aix and the foot of Sainte-Victoire mountain"; notes that this was the only Cézanne sold from the Armory Show.
Denis Coutagne et al. Sainte-Victoire, Cézanne, 1990. Exh. cat., Musée Granet. Aix-en-Provence, 1990, pp. 314, 353, 356, no. 26, fig. 136 (color), dates it 1888 in the catalogue of works and 1888–95 in the chronology.
Christian Geelhaar in Mary Louise Krumrine. Paul Cézanne: The Bathers. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Basel, 1990, p. 277.
Maria Teresa Benedetti. Cézanne. [Italian ed., 1995]. Paris, 1995, p. 183, ill. (color), dates it 1888–90.
Charles de Lartigue. Les paysages de Paul Cézanne. Lyons, 1995, p. 30, ill. (color), calls it "La colline des pauvres" and dates it about 1888–94.
Pavel Machotka. Cézanne: Landscape into Art. New Haven, 1996, pp. 22, 55–57, 79–83, ill. (color, overall and detail), dates it about 1892–94; notes its similarity to paintings executed in Chantilly in 1888, although its color is closer to those completed in the 1890s; publishes photographs of the site, indicating that in the painting Cézanne "pushed the hills apart".
John Rewald, in collaboration with Walter Feilchenfeldt, and Jayne Warman. The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 337, 341, 405–6, 564, 568, 570–72, no. 612; vol. 2, ill. p. 205, calls it "La Colline des Pauvres près du Château Noir, avec vue sur Saint-Joseph" and dates it 1888–90.
Terence Maloon in Classic Cézanne. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of New South Wales. Sydney, 1998, pp. 29, 48, 105, 108, no. 28, ill. (color).
Friedrich Teja Bach in Cézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. 2000, p. 114, fig. 18, compares Cézanne's use of color in this work to Matisse, "View of the Sea, Collioure" (1906; The Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.).
Rebecca A. Rabinow. "Modern Art Comes to the Metropolitan: The 1921 Exhibition of 'Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings'." Apollo 152 (October 2000), pp. 4, 9 n 12.
Chiao-Mei Liu Université de Paris. Cézanne: La série de Château Noir. Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2001, pp. 313, 315, no. 25, dates it about 1890–95.
Bennard B. Perlman. American Artists, Authors, and Collectors: The Walter Pach Letters, 1906–1958. Albany, 2002, pp. 120–21, ill., identifies it as the painting mentioned in Bryson Burroughs's March 24, 1913 letter to Pach, adding that it was acquired for the MMA through Pach.
Ann Dumas in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, fig. 27 (color).
Rebecca A. Rabinow and Jayne S. Warman in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 286.
Paul Smith in Philip Conisbee and Denis Coutagne. Cézanne in Provence. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2006, p. 69, fig. 12 (color), calls it "La Colline des Pauvres near the Château Noir, with a View over Saint-Joseph" and dates it 1888–90.
Jayne S. Warman in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 341, no. 39, ill., dates it 1888–90.
Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 7.
Adrianne O. Bratis in Cézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, pp. 29, 33.
Anabelle Kienle in Cézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, p. 318.
Laurette E. McCarthy in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 263.
Emily Schuchardt Navratil in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 355.
Gail Stavitsky in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, pp. 6, 32, 36–37, 58 n. 148, pp. 150, 340, no. 8, ill. (color, overall and detail), dates it 1888–90.
Michael R. Taylor in Cézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, p. 412, fig. 15.1 (color), notes that Arshile Gorky studied this painting in the MMA galleries, making his own version called "Landscape" (about 1927–28; private collection).
Jayne S. Warman in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 86.