Alex[andre]. Barbier. Salon de 1839. Paris, 1839, p. 138.
Amans de Ch[avagneux]... et A... Examen du Salon de 1839, de l'état actuel de l'art en France, et des moyens d'améliorer le sort des artistes. Paris, 1839, pp. 30–31.
J[ules]. Janin. "Salon de 1839 (deuxième article)." L'Artiste, 2ème sér., 2 (1839), pp. 232–33, ill. opp. p. 356 (lithograph by Collignon), calls it an "adorable plaisanterie," adding that "rien n'est plus charmant, plus vrai et plus naif".
Laurent-Jan. Le Salon de 1839. Paris, 1839, pp. 7–8, ill. opp. p. 5 (lithograph, in reverse, by Challamel Del.).
"Salon de 1839 – Peinture: Les Experts, par Decamps." Le Magasin pittoresque 7 (May 1839), pp. 145–46, ill. (engraving), discusses its popularity at the Salon and speculates whether the monkeys represent Salon jurors, ignorant art amateurs, or professional "commissaires-experts".
"Collection de Lord Seymour." Beaux-arts 2 (1844), p. 221, describes the monkeys before a Poussin landscape.
Auguste de Belloy. "Beaux-Arts. Exposition nationale." L'Assemblée nationale (September 7, 1855) [excerpt reprinted in Ref. Chaumelin 1861, pp. 29–30], interprets it as a bitter satire of the salon jury; describes the monkeys' resemblance to humans as hideous, adding "le laid n'est pas seulement laid, il est dangereux et malsain".
Théophile Gautier. Les Beaux-arts en Europe. 1, 1855, pp. 215–16, as "Singes amateurs".
Charles Perrier. "Exposition universelle des beaux-arts." L'Artiste, 5ème sér., 15 (June 17, 1855), p. 89, calls it "Singes" and praises its comic mockery.
Théophile Silvestre. Histoire des artistes vivants: Français et étrangers. Paris, 1856, pp. 176, 185–86.
Théophile Gautier. "Exposition de tableaux modernes, tirés de collections d'amateurs—1er article." Gazette des beaux-arts 5 (February 15, 1860), pp. 199–200, observes that "jamais la caricature humaine n'a été faite, à travers le masque simiesque, d'une façon plus ironique, plus cruelle et plus amusante".
Paul d'Ivoi. "La Vente des collections de Lord Seymour." Figaro (January 15, 1860), p. 5, notes that this painting will not be included in the sale of Seymour's collection because it is a bequest.
Philippe Burty. Notes sur Decamps. 1861 [excerpt published in Ref. Mosby 1977, vol. 2, p. 492], recounts Decamps's statement before this picture at Exh. Paris 1860: "'Quelle bétise faites dans la jeunesse. Nous nous amusions à des tours de force. On se frottât les mains quand on avait peint un tableau avec du bitume ou de l'outremer! Il n'est que longer devient vieux qu'on traite l'art sérieusement.'".
Marius Chaumelin. Decamps: Sa vie, son œuvre. Marseilles, 1861, pp. 5, 7, 29–33, 43–44, remarks that although Decamps painted this picture as vengeance for his consecutive rejections by the Salon jury, its intent is purely comic; notes that it was not included in Lord Seymour's sale and conjectures that it was purchased by the Duke of Cumberland, who had unsuccessfully offered Fr 20,000 for it several years ago [see Ref. Robert and Tupinier-Barrillon 1999].
"Gravures du numéro: Les Experts." L'Artiste, sér. 7, 12 (1861), p. 24, ill. between pp. 24–25 (engraving by G. Greux).
Ernest Chesneau. La Peinture française au XIXe siècle: Les Chefs d'école. Paris, 1862, p. 225.
Paul Mantz. "Artistes contemporain. — Decamps." Gazette des beaux-arts 12 (February 1862), pp. 114–16, remarks that the landscape on the easel in this picture resembles a Poussin as painted by Decamps.
Ad[olphe]. Moreau. Decamps et son œuvre. Paris, 1869, pp. 70, 156, catalogues an etching by G. Greux (p. 69, no. 20) and a lithograph by Challamel (p. 92, no. 17) after this painting; locates it in the collection of M. Siltzer.
Eugène de Mirecourt. Delaroche, Decamps. Paris, 1871, p. 61.
Emile Im-Thurn. "Scheffer & Decamps." Mémoires de l'académie du gard: Année 1875, 6ème sér., 5 (1876), p. 486.
Charles Clément. Decamps. Paris, , pp. 24, 78, ill. p. 27 (lithograph by Challamel), calls it "Singes experts"; erroneously states that it was shown at the Salon of 1844, but lists it in the Salon of 1839 elsewhere; locates it in the collection of John Siltzer, London.
John C. van Dyke. "Two Private Collections in Paris." Art Review 2 (December 1887), p. 70, as "The Monkey Connoisseurs" in the Secrétan collection; considers it a "degradation of a noble art".
"The Fine Arts: Sale of the Secretan Collection." Critic 12 (July 6, 1889), p. 11, calls it "Monkeys as Art Experts" and notes that it sold for $14,000 at the Secrétan sale.
Montezuma [Montague Marks]. "My Notebook." Art Amateur 21 (September 1889), p. 66, notes that it was purchased at the Secrétan sale by Durand-Ruel, whose father had previously owned it for Fr 2,500 [correspondence with Durand-Ruel indicates that this picture was not owned by Durand-Ruel prior to the Secrétan sale].
D. C. T. "The Secrétan Collection." Art Journal, n.s., (November 1889), p. 310, notes that it sold for £2,800 at the Secrétan sale.
Léon Rosenthal. "La Peinture romantique sous la Monarchie de Juillet (deuxième article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 4th ser., 7 (March 1912), pp. 225–26.
Decamps. Paris, , pp. 46, 55.
Léon Rosenthal. Du Romantisme au réalisme: essai sur l'évolution de la peinture en France de 1830 à 1848. Paris, 1914, pp. 138–39.
Pierre du Colombier. Decamps. Paris, 1928, p. 14, pl. 30.
H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, p. 105, as "The Critics".
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX Century." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, 1966, pp. 31–32, ill., observe that the landscape within this picture is in the style of Poussin or Gaspard Dughet.
Claus Virch. The Artist and the Animal. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co., Inc. [New York], 1968, p. 60, no. 79, ill.
Dewey F. Mosby Harvard University. Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, 1803–1860. New York, 1977, vol. 1, pp. 145–46, 368, 372–73; vol. 2, pp. 381, 491–92, no. 201, pl. 44B, dates it about 1836–37 in the caption and 1837 in the text; cautions against interpreting this picture as a criticism of the Salon jurors, citing evidence that Decamps did not often submit his work; states that Lord Seymour bought it from Decamps in 1837.
David B. Cass. In the Studio: The Making of Art in Nineteenth-Century France. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 1981, pp. 14–15, 46, no. 9, ill., comments that this picture reflects the increasing role of the professional art appraiser for nineteenth-century collectors; asserts that Decamps did not intend his "singeries" as biting satires, but meant for pictures such as ours to provoke "surprised amusement at seeing familiar tasks performed by creatures oddly capable of mimicking human behavior".
Frances Weitzenhoffer. "The Creation of the Havemeyer Collection, 1875–1900." PhD diss., City University of New York, 1982, p. 108, fig. 17, states that Durand-Ruel purchased it for Havemeyer at the Secrétan sale.
David B. Cass in David B. Cass and Michael M. Floss. Alexandre Gabriel Decamps, 1803–1860. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 1984, pp. 39–40, 66, no. 7, ill. p. 21.
Patricia Mainardi. "The Political Origins of Modernism." Art Journal 45 (Spring 1985), p. 14, fig. 5, remarks that this painting was criticized as reflecting bourgeois values when it was shown at the 1855 Exposition Universelle.
Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, p. 58.
Ronald de Leeuw. Philippe Rousseau, 1816–1887. Exh. cat., Van Gogh Museum. Amsterdam, 1993, p. 24, fig. 19.
Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 208–9, 285.
Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 10, colorpl. 8.
Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 323, no. A183, ill.
Hervé Robert and Béatrice Tupinier-Barrillon. "Une Grande collection au temps du Romantisme: La Galerie Seymour." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 133 (January 1999), pp. 31–32, 42–43, 55 n. 34, no. 45, ill. on cover (color) and fig. 13, state that it was no. 906, valued at Fr 5,000, in the posthumous inventory of Lord Seymour's collection; note that Seymour bequeathed this picture to Colonel Viterne.
Patrick Noon in Patrick Noon. Crossing the Channel: British and French Painting in the Age of Romanticism. Exh. cat., Tate Britain. London, 2003, p. 176, fig. 51 (color).
Louise Lippincott and Andreas Blühm. Fierce Friends: Artists and Animals, 1750–1900. Exh. cat., Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. London, 2005, p. 136, ill. pp. 11, 137 (color, detail and overall), describe the landscape painting within this picture as in the style of Géricault or Decamps himself.