The Toilet of Bathsheba

Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam)

Oil on wood
22 1/2 x 30 in. (57.2 x 76.2 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    King David, barely discernible atop the palace in the background, sees Bathsheba bathing and sends for her, despite the fact that she is married to his loyal soldier Uriah (Samuel 2:2–5). The king later arranges for Uriah to be killed in battle. The painting is one of a few dating from the 1640s in which Rembrandt revives his early, precisely descriptive manner in order to produce fine "cabinet pictures" for collectors. The others are also religious but not erotic, as this one was surely intended to be. The original state of the badly worn background may be judged from a reproductive engraving of 1763.

  • Catalogue Entry

    This panel is one of several finely painted cabinet pictures made by Rembrandt during the 1640s. The subject of Bathsheba is from the Bible (2 Samuel 11-12) and was common in northern European art from the early sixteenth century onward. Its popularity derived, in part, from the inclusion of a nude female. The theme also carried strong moral associations: King David (barely discernable in the distant palace) spies on and falls in love with the beautiful Bathsheba and arranges for her husband to be killed in battle. He is reprimanded by the prophet Nathan; the child he and Bathsheba had conceived dies, and David repents. Rembrandt painted another work of this subject, about 1632; it is now lost, though known through a copy in the Musée des Beaux Arts, Rennes. His great canvas in the Louvre of 1654 introduces a mood of portending tragedy quite distinct from this earlier treatment.

    The background of the picture is abraded and the head and torso of the servant are badly worn. However, the foreground and the figures of the old woman and Bathesheba are well preserved, and cleaning of the picture in 1995 revealed an autograph work. Some scholars, beginning with Gerson in 1968, had considered it a product of the workshop with, perhaps, some retouching by Rembrandt. An etching by Jean Michel Moreau the Younger, dated 1763 (MMA 62.695.125; see Images) clarifies the original effect of space and illustrates how much detail has been lost. A later print by Le Grand (Basan 1781) largely agrees with the Moreau etching. However, an etching by John Burnet (Smith 1836), dated 1815, shows the background in approximately its present state, indicating that the painting had been drastically overcleaned in the intervening years.

    [2010; adapted from Liedtke 2007]

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed and dated (lower left): Rembrandt f / 1643

  • Provenance

    Willem Six, Amsterdam (until 1734; his sale, Schoemaker . . . ten Brink, Amsterdam, May 12, 1734, no. 56, for fl. 265 to Hoogenbergh); Heer van Zwieten (until 1741; his sale, The Hague, April 12, 1741, no. 130, for fl. 350 to De Hond); comte de Brühl, Dresden (in 1763); Poullain, Paris (until d. 1780; his estate sale, Le Brun, Paris, March 15–21, 1780, no. 37, for 2,400 livres to Le Brun); [Le Brun, Paris, 1780–at least 1791; his sale, Paris, April 20, 1791, no. 53, for 1,000 livres, bought in]; Alexandre Delahante, London (until 1814; his sale, Phillips, London, June 3, 1814, no. 25, for £105 to Geddes); Sir Thomas Lawrence, London (until d. 1830; his estate sale, Christie's, London, May 15, 1830, no. 120, for £157.10 to Smith); [John Smith, London, 1830; sold to Vernon]; G. J. Vernon (until 1830–31; his anonymous sale, Christie's, London, April 16, 1831, no. 48, for £160.13 to Emmerson); Thomas Emmerson, London (1831–32; his sale, Phillips, London, June 16, 1832, no. 135, for £252 to [or bought in by] Wilson); ?[Phillips, London, from 1832]; Colonel de Biré, Brussels (until 1841; his anonymous sale, organized by Héris, Hôtel rue des Jeuneurs, 16, Paris, March 25, 1841, no. 6, for Fr 7,880); Baron Steengracht van Oosterland, The Hague (by 1859–d. 1875); his grandson, Baron H. A. Steengracht van Duivenvoorde, The Hague (1875–d. 1912; his estate sale, George Petit, Paris, June 9, 1913, no. 61, for Fr 1,000,000 [plus Fr 100,000 fee] to Duveen); [Duveen, Paris, 1913; sold for $213,621.50 to Altman]; Benjamin Altman, New York (d. 1913)

  • Exhibition History

    Amsterdam. Stedelijk Museum. "Rembrandt Schilderijen," September 8–October 31, 1898, no. 56 (lent by Jhr. Steengracht van Duivenvoorde, The Hague).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Art of Rembrandt," January 21–?, 1942, no catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Rembrandt," 1952, no catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Painter's Light," October 5–November 10, 1971, no. 19.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 10, 1995–January 7, 1996, no. 10.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 18, 2007–January 6, 2008, no catalogue.

  • References

    Gerard Hoet. Catalogus of Naamlyst van Schilderyen, met derzelver pryzen, zedert een langen reeks van Jaaren zoo in Holland als op andere Plaatzen in het openbaar verkogt. 2, The Hague, 1752, p. 21, no. 130, as sold for fl. 350 in the Zwieten sale of 1731 [sic for 1741].

    Gerard Hoet. Catalogus of Naamlyst van Schilderyen, met derzelver pryzen, zedert een langen reeks van Jaaren zoo in Holland als op andere Plaatzen in het openbaar verkogt. 1, The Hague, 1752, p. 413, no. 56, as sold for fl. 265 in the Willem Six sale of 1734.

    François Basan. Collection de cent-vingt estampes . . . qui composoient le cabinet de M. Poullain. Paris, 1781, p. 15, no. 84, ill. (engraving), publishes an engraving after it by Le Grand; as also engraved by Moreau.

    John Smith. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. 7, London, 1836, p. 13, no. 33, as etched by Burnet; lists it as in an anonymous sale in Amsterdam in 1740, sold for fl. 350 [probably the Heer Hendrick Trip sale, but see Notes].

    Charles Blanc. Le trésor de la curiosité. 2, Paris, 1858, p. 441, as engraved by Schmidt [Smith]; erroneously states that it was in the collection of William IV, King of England [sic for Willem Six].

    W. Burger [Théophile Thoré]. "Sur Brouwer." L'Artiste, 7th ser., 6 (January 23, 1859), p. 59.

    Ronald Sutherland Gower. Art Galleries: Belgium and Holland. 1875, p . 57 [see Ref. Steengracht 1913], mentions having seen it [while it was in either the Biré or Steengracht collection].

    C. Vosmaer. Rembrandt, sa vie et ses ouevres. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1877, pp. 250–52, 255, 532–33, 586, states that it was in the collection of the comte de Brühl; mentions an engraving of Bathsheba by Buytewech, suggesting that Rembrandt may have seen it; notes that a pen drawing of Bathsheba with a servant was in the Suermondt collection.

    "Art in the Netherlands: The Gallery of M. Le Baron Steengracht D'Oosterland." Magazine of Art 3 (1880), pp. 153–54.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode. Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei. Braunschweig, 1883, pp. 451–52, 559, no. 16.

    Eugène Dutuit. Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt. Paris, 1885, pp. 2, 8, 16, 54, 68, no. 28.

    Alfred von Wurzbach. Rembrandt-galerie. Stuttgart, 1886, text vol., no. 351.

    Alfred Woltmann and Karl Woermann. Geschichte der Malerei. 3, part 2, Leipzig, 1888, p. 699.

    J. F. van Someren. Oude Kunst in Nederland. Amsterdam, [ca. 1890], p. ? [see Ref. Steengracht 1913], publishes an engraving by Steelink.

    Émile Michel. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, and His Time. English ed. New York, 1894, vol. 2, p. 245.

    C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. "Een merkwaardige verzameling teekeningen." Oud-Holland 13 (1895), p. 240, states that Lastman's Bathsheba (Hermitage, St. Petersburg), recorded in a drawing by Bramer (Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam), seems to be the prototype for this painting.

    C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. De Rembrandt Tentoonstelling te Amsterdam. Amsterdam, [1898], unpaginated, no. 14 [text section] and no. 56, pl. 14.

    Georges Lafenestre and Eugène Richtenberger. La Peinture en Europe: La Hollande. Paris, [1898], p. 159, ill. opp. p. 158.

    Marcel Nicolle. "L'Exposition Rembrandt à Amsterdam." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 4 (July–December 1898), p. 548, ill. opp. p. 540.

    Malcolm Bell. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899, pp. 76, 176.

    Marcel Nicolle. Rembrandt aux expositions d'Amsterdam et de Londres. Paris, 1899, p. 26, ill., reprints Ref. Nicolle 1898.

    C. G. 'T Hooft. Verzameling Jhr. Steengracht van Duivenvoorde. 1899, unpaginated, ill.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode with the assistance of C. Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. 4, Paris, 1900, pp. 12–13, 82, no. 246, pl. 246.

    Gustave Geffroy. La Hollande: Amsterdam, Alkmaar, Haarlem, Leyde, La Haye, Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Utrecht. Paris, [1904], pp. 128–29, ill., suggests that Saskia was the model.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart, 1904, pp. XXVIII, 259, 266, ill. p. 132.

    Carl Neumann. Rembrandt. 2nd ed. Berlin, 1905, vol. 1, pp. 213, 304, fig. 71; vol. 2, p. 436.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt und seine Umgebung. Strasbourg, 1905, pp. 83–84, observes that the woman cutting Bathsheba's toenails does not appear in Lastman's painting of this subject, and suggests that the source for this motif was a Tintoretto ["Susanna and the Elders"] in the Louvre, probably known to Rembrandt through an engraving.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1906, p. 400, ill. p. 209.

    Jan Veth. Rembrandt's Leven en Kunst. Amsterdam, 1906, p. 58.

    [Wilhelm von] Bode. "Pieter Lastmans Gemälde der Susanna mit den Alten und seine Beziehungen zu den Darstellungen des gleichen Motivs von Rembrandt." Amtliche Berichte aus den königl. Kunstsammlungen 30 (December 1908), col. 59.

    Kurt Freise. "Bathsebabilder von Rembrandt und Lastman." Monatshefte fuer Kunstwissenschaft 2 (1909), pp. 302–13, fig. 4.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1909, p. 556, ill. p. 228.

    Alfred von Wurzbach. Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon. 2, Vienna, 1910, p. 400.

    Kurt Freise. Peter Lastman: sein Leben und seine Kunst. Leipzig, 1911, pp. 150, 251, 253–57.

    "Das Schicksal der Steengracht-Galerie." Der Cicerone 4 (1912), p. 522.

    Wilhelm von Bode. Letter to Henry Duveen. May 1, 1913, calls it an exceptionally fine work by Rembrandt in an excellent state.

    Émile Dacier. "La Galerie Steengracht." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 33 (1913), pp. 354–55, ill. p. 353.

    R[obert]. E. D[ell]. "Art in France." Burlington Magazine 22 (January 1913), p. 238.

    M[ax]. J. F[riedländer]. "Auktionsnachrichten." Kunst und Künstler 11 (1913), p. 531.

    Karl Lilienfeld. "Die Sammlung Steengracht zu ihrer Bevorstehenden Auflösung." Der Cicerone 5 (1913), pp. 328–29, ill. p. 327.

    "D'un Rembrandt, chez Petit, on donne un million cent mille francs." New York Herald [Paris] (June 10, 1913), p. ?, ill.

    Galerie Steengracht. Galerie Georges Petit, Paris. June 9, 1913, vol. 1, pp. 77–80, no. 61, ill. opp. p. 78, gives extensive provenance and bibliographic information.

    Handbook of the Benjamin Altman Collection. New York, 1914, pp. 15–18, no. 9.

    W. Stchawinsky. "Trois générations." Starye Gody (May 1914), pp. 25–30, ill. between pp. 26 and 27.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. "The Rembrandts of the Altman Collection: I." Art in America 2 (August 1914), pp. 356–57.

    "The Altman Collection in the Metropolitan Museum, New York." Art and Progress 6 (January 1915), p. 81.

    C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 6, London, 1916, pp. 44–45, no. 40.

    W[ilhelm]. Martin. Alt-Holländische Bilder. Berlin, 1918, pp. 114, 235, fig. 65.

    Isabella Errera. Répertoire des peintures datées. 1, Brussels, 1920, p. 236.

    Algernon Graves. "H to Reme." Art Sales from Early in the Eighteenth Century to Early in the Twentieth Century. 2, London, 1921, pp. 379–80.

    Alan Burroughs. "Rembrandts in the Metropolitan Museum." The Arts 4 (November 1923), p. 270, ill. p. 263.

    D. S. Meldrum. Rembrandt's Paintings. London, 1923, p. 10 n. 4, pp. 88, 110–11, 113, 197, pl. CCXCII.

    François Monod. "La Galerie Altman au Metropolitan Museum de New-York (2e article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 8 (November 1923), pp. 303–4.

    E. W. Bredt. Die Rembrandt-Bibel, altes und neues Testament. [3rd ed.]. Munich, [1926], ill. p. 110.

    Werner Weisbach. Rembrandt. Berlin, 1926, pp. 244, 247–49, 429–30, 612 n. 6 to chapter 8, fig. 65.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931, unpaginated, no. 75, pl. 75.

    O[tto]. Benesch in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 29, Leipzig, 1935, p. 264.

    A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt Gemälde. Vienna, 1935, p. 22, no. 513, pl. 513.

    Julius S. Held. "Rembrandt: The Self-Education of an Artist." Art News 40 (February 1–14, 1942), p. 14, ill. pp. 11 (detail), 28.

    Introduction by William M. Ivins Jr. The Unseen Rembrandt. New York, 1942, pls. 7–8 (overall and detail).

    William M. Ivins Jr. "The Art of Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 37 (January 1942), pp. 3, 6, ill. p. 7.

    Margaret Breuning. "Metropolitan Re-Installs Its Treasures in Attractive Settings." Art Digest 18 (June 1, 1944), ill. p. 6.

    Josephine L. Allen. "The Museum's Rembrandts." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (November 1945), p. 77.

    Richard Hamann. Rembrandt. Potsdam, 1948, pp. 328, 333, 337, 364, fig. 227.

    Jakob Rosenberg. Rembrandt. Cambridge, Mass., 1948, vol. 1, pp. 195, 202; vol. 2, pl. 257.

    Henrik Bramsen. "The Classicism of Rembrandt's 'Bathsheba'." Burlington Magazine 92 (May 1950), p. 128.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 11 (November 1952), pp. 84–85, ill.

    Gerard Knuttel. "On the Bathseba of Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum, New York." Actes du XVIIme congrès international d'histoire de l'art. The Hague, 1955, pp. 421–24, fig. 2.

    Werner Sumowski. "Nachträge zum Rembrandtjahr 1956." Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 7, no. 2 (1957/58), p. 227.

    Gerard Knuttel. Adriaen Brouwer: The Master and His Work. The Hague, 1962, p. 97 n. 1.

    Elisabeth Kunoth-Leifels. Über die Darstellungen der "Bathseba im Bade". Essen, 1962, pp. 64, 69–71, 87–88 nn. 141–43, 146–47, fig. 56, notes that Rembrandt did not necessarily adopt the motif of a servant cutting Bathsheba's toenails from Tintiretto's painting in the Louvre.

    Jakob Rosenberg. Rembrandt: Life & Work. rev. ed. London, 1964, pp. 221, 310, 321, fig. 257.

    Kurt Bauch. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966, p. 2, pl. 25.

    Madlyn Kahr. "Rembrandt's Esther: A Painting and an Etching Newly Interpreted and Dated." Oud Holland 81 (1966), p. 236.

    Horst Gerson. Rembrandt Paintings. Amsterdam, 1968, p. 496, no. 213, ill. p. 321, as a reworking by Rembrandt of an earlier painting by a pupil.

    Christian Tümpel. "Studien zur Ikonografie der Historien Rembrandts: Deutung von bisher nicht oder falsch gedeuteten Historien." PhD diss., Universität Hamburg, 1968, pp. 104–5 [published in Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 20 (1969), pp. 167–68].

    A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. 3rd ed. London, 1969, pp. 589, 600, no. 513, ill. p. 425.

    H[orst]. Gerson. "The Rembrandt Exhibitions of 1969." Burlington Magazine 111 (December 1969), p. 782, as "an example of a pupil's picture reworked by Rembrandt".

    Paolo Lecaldano in L'opera pittorica completa di Rembrandt. Milan, 1969, p. 111, no. 250, ill. p. 110.

    Benjamin A. Rifkin. "Rembrandt and His Circle, Part I." Art News 68 (May 1969), pp. 26, 64, supports the attribution to Rembrandt.

    Wolfgang Stechow. "Some Observations on Rembrandt and Lastman." CAA: 57th Annual Conference. January 1969 [published in Oud Holland 84 (1969), p. 161].

    Jacques Foucart in Le siècle de Rembrandt: Tableaux hollandais des collections publiques françaises. Exh. cat., Petit Palais. Paris, 1970, p. 182.

    Francis Haskell. "The Benjamin Altman Bequest." Metropolitan Museum Journal 3 (1970), pp. 276–78, fig. 18.

    Edward Fowles. Memories of Duveen Brothers. London, 1976, pp. 76–77.

    B[en]. P. J. Broos. Index to the Formal Sources of Rembrandt's Art. Maarssen, The Netherlands, 1977, p. 54.

    Walter L. Strauss and Marjon van der Meulen. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979, p. 237.

    Christopher Brown. Carel Fabritius. Oxford, 1981, p. 26.

    Colin Eisler. "Rembrandt and Bathsheba." Essays in Northern European Art Presented to Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann on His Sixtieth Birthday. Doornspijk, The Netherlands, 1983, pp. 85–88, fig. 3, notes Gerson's opinion [see Ref. 1968] that it is a reworking by Rembrandt of a student piece, but argues that Rembrandt may have painted it in the 1630s and returned to it in the 1640s; states that the composition was influenced by a red chalk drawing (Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin) made by Rembrandt in the 1630s after Lastman's "Susanna" of 1614 (Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin).

    Amy Golahny. "Rembrandt's Early 'Bathsheba': The Raphael Connection." Art Bulletin 65 (December 1983), pp. 671–75, fig. 1, states that Bathsheba's pose is adapted from the lost Raphael drawing "Alexander and Roxane," recorded in an engraving by Jacopo Caraglio.

    Werner Sumowski. "Ch. Paudiss–Anonyme." Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. 4, Landau/Pfalz, 1983–[94?], pp. 2877–78, 2885 n. 56, as by a pupil.

    Werner Sumowski. "Nachträge Ortsregister." Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. 5, Landau/Pfalz, 1983–[94?], pp. 3367, 3407.

    Gary Schwartz. Rembrandt, His Life, His Paintings. New York, 1985, pp. 226, 228, 234, fig. 245 (color).

    Christian Tümpel. Rembrandt: Mythos und Methode. Königstein, 1986, pp. 287–88, 419, no. A1, ill. (color), as by a pupil.

    Svetlana [L.] Alpers. Rembrandt's Enterprise: The Studio and the Market. Chicago, 1988, p. 75, fig. 3.39.

    Edwin Buijsen in Ben Broos. "The Battle Against the Dollar: The Dutch Reaction to American Collecting in the Period from 1900 to 1914." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis. The Hague, 1990, pp. 71–72, fig. 14.

    Walter Liedtke. "Dutch Paintings in America: The Collectors and Their Ideals." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis, The Hague. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1990, p. 48.

    Mieke Bal. Reading "Rembrandt": Beyond the Word-Image Opposition. Cambridge, 1991, pp. 168–69, fig. 4.13.

    Jan Kelch. "Paintings." Rembrandt: The Master & His Workshop. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. 1, New Haven, 1991, pp. 244–45, as a workshop painting.

    Richard Rand in The Ahmanson Gifts: European Masterpieces in the Collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Los Angeles, 1991, p. 187, under no. 48.

    Christian Tümpel in Pieter Lastman: The Man Who Taught Rembrandt. Exh. cat., Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1991, p. 81, calls it a studio work from which Rembrandt borrowed the main group for his Bathsheba of 1654 in Paris.

    Petra Welzel. Rembrandts "Bathseba"—Metapher das Begehrens oder Sinnbild zur Selbsterkenntnis? Frankfurt, 1994, pp. 33–35, fig. 11, as from the circle of Rembrandt.

    William Grimes. "An Enigma Sometimes Wrapped in a Fake." New York Times (October 1, 1995), p. H34.

    Walter Liedtke in "Paintings, Drawings, and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, [1995], pp. 24, 64–65, no 10, ill. (color), supports Sonnenburg's attribution [see Ref. 1995] to Rembrandt.

    Hubert von Sonnenburg. "Paintings: Problems and Issues." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1, New York, 1995, pp. 14, 28, 31–32, 61–63, 94–99, no. 10, ill. (color) and figs. 77, 79 (color detail), 121, 123 (x-radiograph detail), 124, 125 (color detail), 126 (infrared reflectogram detail), 127 (color detail), based on extensive technical analysis, defends the attribution to Rembrandt.

    B[en]. P. J. Broos in The Dictionary of Art. 26, New York, 1996, p. 163.

    Jan Leja. "Rembrandt's 'Woman Bathing in a Stream'." Simiolus 24, no. 4 (1996), p. 321 n. 2.

    Lillian B. Miller in The Dictionary of Art. 1, New York, 1996, p. 731.

    Paul Broekhoff and Michiel Franken. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship." Simiolus 25, no. 1 (1997), pp. 78, 80, fig. 1.

    Michiel Franken. "'Aen stoelen en bancken leren gaen'. Leerzame vormen van navolging in Rembrandts werkplaats." Album Discipulorum J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1997, pp. 71–72, fig. 4, as from Rembrandt's workshop.

    Svetlana Alpers. "Not Bathsheba: I. The Painter and the Model." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, pp. 154, 156, 159 n. 2, as formerly attributed to Rembrandt; assigns it to Rembrandt's workshop.

    Gary Schwartz. "'Though deficient in beauty': A Documentary History and Interpretation of Rembrandt's 1654 Painting of Bathsheba." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, pp. 181–82, 187–88, 191–93, 201 nn. 39–40, p. 202 nn. 43–44.

    Eric Jan Sluijter. "Rembrandt's Bathsheba and the Conventions of a Seductive Theme." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, pp. 65–66, 69–70, 81–82, 84, 86, 93 n. 31, p. 94 nn. 36, 38, fig. 17.

    Christopher Wright. Rembrandt. Paris, 2000, p. 100, fig. 86 (color).

    Eric Jan Sluijter in "'Horrible Nature, Incomparable Art': Rembrandt and the Depiction of the Female Nude." Rembrandt's Women. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, 2001, p. 247 n. 18.

    Amy Golahny. "Homer, Raphael, Rembrandt: Reading 'Vulcan's Net'." Rethinking Rembrandt. Boston, 2002, p. 89, as by Rembrandt.

    Esmée Quodbach. "'Rembrandt's "Gilder" is here': How America Got its First Rembrandt and France Lost Many of its Old Masters." Simiolus 31, no. 1/2 (2004), p. 103.

    Meryle Secrest. Duveen: A Life in Art. New York, 2004, pp. 117, 478.

    Duncan Bull and Taco Dibbits in Rembrandt—Caravaggio. Exh. cat., Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, pp. 151, 198 n., fig. 56 (color), as attributed to Rembrandt.

    Michiel Franken in Rembrandt: Quest of a Genius. Exh. cat., Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, pp. 173, 175, fig. 196 (color) [Dutch ed., "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een genie"], as from the workshop of Rembrandt.

    Everhard Korthals Altes in Rembrandt-Bilder: Die historische Sammlung der Kasseler Gemäldegalerie. Exh. cat., Staatliche Museen Kassel. Kassel, 2006, p. 31, fig. 8 (color).

    Ernst van de Wetering in Rembrandt? The Master and His Workshop. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. [Copenhagen], 2006, pp. 120, 122, fig. 26 (color), calls it a "free workshop variant" of Rembrandt's "Susanna and the Elders" in Berlin.

    Ernst van de Wetering in Rembrandt: Quest of a Genius. Exh. cat., Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, pp. 244, 248, figs. 271, 273 (color, overall and detail) [Dutch ed., "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een genie"], as by a Rembrandt pupil.

    Walter Liedtke. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, vol. 1, p. ix; vol. 2, pp. 613–23, no. 149, colorpl. 149, figs. 154 (detail, reversed), 157.

    Esmée Quodbach. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 65 (Summer 2007), pp. 33, 35, 37–38, 70, figs. 38 (color), 40 (color, MMA Altman gallery photograph).

    Teresa Posada Kubissa in Rembrandt, pintor de historias. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2008, p. 190, fig. 32.1 (color).

    Elmer Kolfin in "From the "Age of Discovery" to the Age of Abolition: Artists of the Renaissance and Baroque." The Image of the Black in Western Art. 3, part 1, Cambridge, Mass., 2010, pp. 279, 291, 379 n. 34, fig. 162 (color).

    Annette de Vries and Quentin Buvelot. Passie voor schilderijen: de verzameling Steengracht van Duivenwoorde. Voorschoten, The Netherlands, 2012, pp. 100–102, no. 65, ill. (color).

  • Notes

    This work was also engraved by Smith (Vosmaer 1877), and W. Steelink (Someren n.d.). Two impressions of the Moreau engraving are in the MMA.

    Mireur's "Dictionnaire des ventes d'art . . . ", Paris, vol. 6, 1912, p. 157, lists a "Bethsabée sortant du bain" by Rembrandt in the sale of Heer Hendrick, Amsterdam, 1740, sold for Fr 727. On an old ex collections card, the sale is given as Heer Hendrick Trip, Amsterdam, May 11, 1740, sold for fl. 350, but there is no Bathsheba listed in Hoet's catalogue of the Trip sale.

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History