G. K. Nagler. Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon. 5, Munich, 1837, p. 352, catalogues a mezzotint by John Greenwood as "Rembrandt's Father from the original Painting belonging to W. Baillie," the original possibly this picture.
Émile Michel. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, and His Time. English ed. New York, 1894, vol. 2, p. 247, as signed and dated 1665.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Hand-Book No. 6. New York, 1894, p. 72, no. 277, gives provenance information.
Malcolm Bell. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899, pp. 86, 184, no. 274.
Wilhelm [von] Bode with the assistance of C. Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. 7, Paris, 1902, pp. 5, 54, no. 496, ill. opp. p. 54, compares it with the Marquand "Portrait of a Man" (MMA 91.26.7), finding them both harsh in lighting and careless in handling.
Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1906, p. 405, ill. p. 383.
Wilhelm R. Valentiner. The Hudson-Fulton Celebration: Catalogue of an Exhibition Held in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1909, vol. 1, p. 107, no. 106, ill. opp. p. 106.
Joseph Breck. "L'art hollandais à l'exposition Hudson-Fulton à New York." L'art flamand & hollandais 13, no. 2 (1910), p. 55, ill. opp. p. 52 [published in Dutch in Onze Kunst 17 (January 1910), p. 11, ill. opp. p. 12], states that it reflects the sadness of Rembrandt's last years.
E[mil]. Waldmann. "Die Ausstellung Holländischer Gemälde des 17. Jahrhunderts in New York." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n.s., 21, no. 4 (1910), p. 77, ill. p. 74.
C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 6, London, 1916, p. 354, no. 754.
Alan Burroughs. "Rembrandts in the Metropolitan Museum." The Arts 4 (November 1923), p. 268, calls it unfinished.
D. S. Meldrum. Rembrandt's Paintings. London, 1923, p. 203, pl. CCCCXXXVII.
Connoisseur 79 (December 1927), ill. p. 199.
Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931, unpaginated, no. 165, pl. 165.
A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt Gemälde. Vienna, 1935, p. 13, no. 317, pl. 317, erroneously as in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
Jakob Rosenberg. "Rembrandt's Technical Means and Their Stylistic Significance." Technical Studies 8 (1939–40), p. 203, fig. 4, calls it obviously unfinished and notes that "the ponderation which we usually find in Rembrandt's chiaroscuro is not yet achieved".
Introduction by William M. Ivins Jr. The Unseen Rembrandt. New York, 1942, pls. 29–30 (overall and detail).
William M. Ivins Jr. "The Art of Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 37 (January 1942), p. 3, ill. p. 11.
Josephine L. Allen. "The Museum's Rembrandts." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (November 1945), p. 73.
Theodore Rousseau Jr. "Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 11 (November 1952), pp. 82, 84.
A. Hyatt Mayor. "The Gifts that Made the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 100.
Kurt Bauch. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966, p. 48, no. 317, notes its acceptance by Bredius, but rejects the attribution to Rembrandt; suggests it was painted in the eighteenth century, perhaps in England.
A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. 3rd ed. London, 1969, p. 574, no. 317, ill. p. 244, notes that it was "rightly deleted from Rembrandt's works by Bauch" [see Ref. 1966].
Paolo Lecaldano in L'opera pittorica completa di Rembrandt. Milan, 1969, ill. p. 131, includes it among works of doubtful attribution.
Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, pp. 74, 172 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].
Letters of Roger Fry. New York, 1972, vol. 1, p. 255 n. 1 to letter no. 177 (March 2, 1906), lists it among works included in the 1906 exhibition.
Fakes and Forgeries. Exh. cat., Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Minneapolis, 1973, unpaginated, no. 79, ill., states that it was engraved by William Ballie [sic.] in 1764, noting that it was at least painted before that date.
Hubert von Sonnenburg. Letter to Samuel Sachs. July 2, 1973, states that the signature forms a homogeneous part of the paint layer and therefore leaves no doubt about the fraudulent intention.
Hubert von Sonnenburg. "Maltechnische Gesichtspunkte zur Rembrandtforschung." Maltechnik/Restauro 82, no. 1 (1976), pp. 17–19, ill., calls it an "old forgery", done after Rembrandt's time; states that it cannot be determined whether it was executed in eighteenth-century England [see Ref. Bauch 1966].
Maryan W. Ainsworth et al. Art and Autoradiography: Insights into the Genesis of Paintings by Rembrandt, Van Dyck, and Vermeer. New York, 1982, p. 97 n. 5, as "missing the characteristic buildup of paint layers seen in autoradiographs of seventeenth-century Dutch paintings".
David Alexander in Rembrandt in Eighteeenth-Century England. Exh. cat., Yale Center for British Art, Yale University. [New Haven], 1983, pp. 51, 58, under no. 104.
John Pope-Hennessy. "Roger Fry and The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Oxford, China, and Italy: Writings in Honour of Sir Harold Acton on his Eightieth Birthday. London, 1984, p. 231, notes that the Museum owned "two right and two wrong Rembrandts" by 1905.
Walter Liedtke in "Paintings, Drawings, and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, , pp. 138–39, no. 42, ill. (color), as by an imitator of Rembrandt; dates it to the last quarter of the seventeenth century.
Hubert von Sonnenburg. "Paintings: Problems and Issues." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1, New York, 1995, pp. 7, 134–35, no. 42, ill. (color), calls it a Rembrandt forgery.
Herbert Lank. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship." Studies in Conservation 41, no. 2 (1996), p. 123.
Walter Liedtke. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, vol. 2, pp. 708, 776, 782–85, no. 178, colorpl. 178, attributes it to a Dutch imitator working between about 1680 and 1710.
Esmée Quodbach. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 65 (Summer 2007), pp. 11, 28.
George S. Keyes in Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. New York, 2011, p. 66.