During the winter of 1904-1905, archaeologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie undertook a survey of archaeological sites in the Sinai, including the Temple to Hathor as Mistress of the Turquoise Mines at Serabit el-Khadim. Covering the floor of the sanctuary and its portico, and extending several feet north, was a 2-3 inch thick layer of debris consisting of fragments of vessels, wands, sistra (sacred rattles), menats (sacred necklaces), animal figures, bracelets, and tiles. Made of faience, these objects were originally votive offerings to the goddess, placed in the temple by royal officials hoping to guarantee the success of their mining expeditions. Among the objects received by the Museum in return for its partial sponsorship of Petrie's expedition was a group of 36 bracelet and tile fragments, all bearing royal names or epithets. The cartouches here (see 09.182.19*) belong to Ramesside kings, primarily Ramesses II or III and Seti I.