Madame Cézanne

Madame Cézanne

November 19, 2014–March 15, 2015

Exhibition Location: Robert Lehman Collection, First Floor, Galleries 955 & 961-962

Madame Cézanne, the first exhibition of paintings, drawings, and watercolors by Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) of his most painted model, Hortense Fiquet (1850–1922), will open at The Metropolitan Museum of Art on November 19. The exhibition will trace Cézanne’s lifelong attachment to the woman who was his model, his wife, and the mother of his son, Paul. She profoundly influenced his portrait practice for more than two decades, and yet, she was not well received—by either his family or his friends. 

The exhibition is made possible by The Florence Gould Foundation.

It is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities.

Madame Cézanne will feature 25 of the 29 known portraits of Hortense Fiquet that Cézanne painted over a period of more than 20 years, including Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory (1891) and Madame Cézanne in a Red Dress (1888–90), both from the Metropolitan Museum’s collection. Hortense Fiquet posed for Cézanne more often than anyone but himself. The exhibition will consider their partnership in all its facets and complexities—the portraits of Hortense in oil, watercolor, and graphite providing the only material clues to that partnership. And yet, the paintings can seem unforgiving, with little understanding of Hortense Fiquet’s character. Critics have cited her sour expression and remote, impenetrable demeanor. These unflattering observations have promoted Hortense Fiquet’s undeserved reputation.  

Cézanne met Hortense in Paris in 1869 while she was working as a bookbinder. Although the circumstances of their first encounter are unknown, an early portrait from 1872 suggests that she was modeling for Cézanne by the age of 22.  Cézanne took great pains to conceal his mistress and their only child, Paul, from his family fearing his authoritative father’s disapproval. The complicated subterfuge led to separate residences, frequent and often desperate appeals for funds, and long periods of living apart, even after their marriage in 1886. Despite this seeming neglect, the portraits attest to the constancy of a relationship that was critical to the artist’s practice and development. Their story is a compelling one, perhaps all the more so for the absence of its particulars.

Highlights of the painted portraits in Madame Cézanne will include Madame Cézanne in a Red Armchair (ca. 1877) from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Madame Cézanne (ca. 1885) from the private collection on loan to Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Museum Berggruen in Berlin; Portrait of Madame Cézanne (ca. 1885–87) from the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Portrait of Madame Cézanne in a Striped Dress (1883–85) from Japan’s Yokohama Museum of Art; Madame Cézanne in Blue (ca. 1888–90) from the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; and the aforementioned canvases from the Metropolitan Museum’s collection. Highlights of the works on paper will include three striking watercolors, 14 drawings, and three rare sketchbooks bearing affectionate studies of Hortense and young Paul. 

Exhibition Credits

Madame Cézanne
is organized by Dita Amory, Acting Associate Curator in Charge and Administrator of The Robert Lehman Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, with Kathryn Kremnitzer, Research Assistant.


The exhibition will be accompanied by a catalogue written by a team of scholars and edited by Dita Amory. It will be published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art and distributed by Yale University Press.

The catalogue is made possible by The Florence Gould Foundation.

Related Programs

Education programs include a Sunday at the Met event on December 7, exhibition tours, gallery talks with conservators and curators, and a studio workshop focusing on portraiture through drawing.

Obsession, a performance by the Metropolitan Museum’s Quartet in Residence, the Attacca Quartet, will take place on February 6, 2015, and will draw inspiration from the exhibition.

The exhibition will be featured on the museum’s website, as well as on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter via the hashtag #MadameCezanne.

Related Installation
Paul Cézanne: Drawings and Watercolors from the Metropolitan Museum’s Collection will be on view in Gallery 960 in the Robert Lehman Wing from November 18, 2014, through March 15, 2015.

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March 5, 2015

Image caption: Paul Cézanne, Madame Cézanne in a Red Armchair. About 1877. Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Sunday at the Met—Madame Cézanne

Welcome and Introduction:
Dita Amory, Acting Associate Curator in Charge and Administrator, The Robert Lehman Collection, MMA

"Cézanne's Process and the Paintings of Hortense Fiquet"
Charlotte Hale, Conservator, Department of Paintings Conservation, MMA

"Studio to Stage: Cézanne's Portraits of His Son, Paul"
Mary Tompkins Lewis, Visiting Associate Professor in Art History, Trinity College

"The Cézannes at Home"
Susan Sidlauskas, Professor, Department of Art History, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

"The Ever-Evolving Critical Fortunes of Cézanne"
Joseph J. Rishel, The Gisela and Dennis Alter Senior Curator of European Painting before 1900, and Senior Curator of the John G. Johnson Collection and the Rodin Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Presented in conjunction with the exhibition Madame Cézanne, on view November 19, 2014–March 15, 2015.

Recorded December 7, 2014

Press resources