Following the "porcelain mania" at the other courts of Europe, Russia's first national porcelain factory—the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory–was established in Saint Petersburg in 1744 by the order of Empress Elizabeth I (r. 1741–61), daughter of Peter the Great. The Russian mining engineer Dmitrii Vinogradov (died 1758) developed working methods that ensured the perpetuity and further development of the factory. Even today his technical notes provide the basis for producing "white gold" at what is now the Lomonosov Porcelain Factory in Saint Petersburg. This cup and saucer come from the personal set of the empress and have an inventory number of Gatchina Palace, a Romanoff summer residence.
Inscription: Painted in red on bottom of each: 2293 / G. Ch. in Cyrillic (presumed inventory mark of Gatchina Palace)
Marking: Painted in black on underside of each:  Double-headed eagle; Impressed on underside on each:  Astrological symbol for Mars (factory mark designating porcelain made with clay from Gjelsk)