Colorful Russian designs such as this were popular in France, possibly for their distinctive Russian-Asian exoticism. They were produced in villages dedicated to textile manufacture, where every able-bodied inhabitant was employed in this local industry. A label on the length of fabric records medals for the manufacturer at Paris in 1867 and 1882 and at the Pan-Russian Exhibition in Nizhni Novgorod in 1896. Colorfastness was an important development and won a medal for one of the leading Russian manufacturers, Ludwig Rabenek, at Moscow in 1891.
Besselièvre ; United Piece Dye Works (until 1936; to MMA)