Art/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), Third Earl of Cumberland

Armorer:
Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608)
Date:
1586
Geography:
Greenwich
Culture:
British, Greenwich
Medium:
Steel, gold, leather, textile
Dimensions:
H. 69 1/2 in. (176.5 cm); Wt. 60 lb. (27.2 kg)
Classification:
Armor for Man
Credit Line:
Munsey Fund, 1932
Accession Number:
32.130.6a–y
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 371
George Clifford (1558–1605) was appointed Queen’s Champion in 1590 and was made a Knight of the Garter two years later. He is best remembered for his capture of the Spanish fort in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 1598. A favorite of Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 1558–1603), he chose for the decoration of this armor the Tudor rose, the French fleur-de-lis (then part of the English arms), and the cipher of Elizabeth, two E’s back to back.

The Cumberland armor is part of a garniture for field and tournament use. It was made in the royal workshops at Greenwich under the direction of the master armorer Jacob Halder (documented in England 1558–1608). The complete garniture is illustrated in the Jacobe Album, a late sixteenth-century manuscript of pen-and-wash drawings that records the decorated armors produced in the Greenwich workshops. The surviving pieces are the man’s armor and several exchange or reinforcing elements––a grandguard (defense for the lower face and upper left torso), passguard (defense for the left elbow), and four vamplates (hand defenses affixed to the lance) for the tilt; a close helmet with detachable visor reinforce for the tournament fought on foot––and horse armor, consisting of a shaffron (head defense) and saddle plates.

The Cumberland armor is the best preserved armor garniture from the royal workshops at Greenwich. It represents a technical and decorative high point of the Greenwich school.
Granscay, S. V. Historical Armor - A Picture Book. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pl. 23.

"Historical Arms and Armor." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin pp. 54, 56, fig. 3.

Meyrick, Samuel Rush. A Critical Inquiry into Ancient Armour, as it Existed in Europe, but Particularly in England, from the Norman Conquest to the Reign of King Charles II, Illustrated by a Series of Illuminated Engravings, with a Glossary of Military Terms of the Middle Ages. Vol. III. 2nd ed. London: H. G. Bohn, 1842. p. 115.

Strutt, Joseph. Complete View of the Dress and Habits of the People of England, from the Establishment of the Saxons in Britain to the Present Time.... Vol. 2. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1842. pl. CXLI, color.

Chaffers, W. Cap a Pee Suit of George, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, A.D. 1590, The property of the Right Honourable Lord Hothfield, Appleby Castle, Westmoreland.. Folkstone, England, 1885. This armor described in detail, with information as toits restoration and related Greenwich armor, as well as information about the earl of Cumberland.

Dean, Bashford. Notes on Arms and Armor. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1916.

Williamson, George Charles. George, Third Earl of Cumberland (1558–1605): His Life and His Voyages, A Study From Original Documents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1920. pp. xix, 106, 277, pls. XIX, XX.

Laking, Guy Francis, Charles A. de Cosson, and Francis Henry Cripps-Day. A Record of European Armour and Arms Through Seven Centuries. Vol. 4. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1921. pp. 52–61, figs. 1132, 1135–1137.

Grancsay, Stephen V. "Notes on Armor of the Greenwich School." Metropolitan Museum Studies 2, No. 1 (November 1929). p. 85, 97, for discussion and bibliography of Greenwich School.

Constable, William George, ed. Commemorative Catalogue of the Exhibition of British Art. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1935. no. 1328, p. 298, pl. 242.

Grancsay, Stephen V. Historical Arms and Armor, A Picture Book by Stephen V. Grancsay. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1938. fig. 5.

Grancsay, Stephen V. Historical Armor: A Picture Book. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 1944. p. 6, pl. 23.

Grancsay, Stephen V. Historical Armor: A Picture Book. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944. pl. 23.

Grancsay, Stephen V. Historical Armor, a picture book by Stephen Grancsay. New York, 1944. p. 6, pl. 23.

Granscay, S. V., A. Hyatt Mayor, James J. Rorimer, William Holmes Forsyth, Bruno Thomas, Sir Richard C. Jebb, Randolph Bullock, Stephen V. Grancsay, and Helmut Nickel. "The New Galleries of Oriental Arms and Armor." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (May 1958). pp. 211, 229, ill. p. 229 and frontispiece.

Granscay, S. V. "The Japanese armor gallery in the Metropolitan Museum of Art." Connoisseur 148 (1961). pp. 196-203, figs. 9, 11.

Thomas, B., Ortwin Gamber, Hans Schedelmann, and Keysersche Verlagsbuchhandlung. Die Schönsten Waffen und Rüstungen aus Europäischen und Amerikanischen Sammlungen. Heidelberg, 1963. no. 56, ill. (color).

Blackmore, Howard. Arms and Armour. Dutton Vista Pictureback. London: Studio Vista, 1965. p. 88, fig. 89, ill. (color).

Nickel, Helmut. Warriors and Worthies: Arms and Armor Through the Ages. New York: Atheneum, 1969. p. 79, ill.

Nickel, Helmut. Ullstein-Waffenbuch: Eine Kulturhistorische Waffenkunde mit Markenverzeichnis. Berlin: Ullstein, 1974. p. 121, ill.

Burkett, M.E. "Conclusions from the Lady Anne Clifford exhibition." Quarto, Abbot Hall Art Gallery Quarterly Bulletin XIV (1976). pp. 1-24, discussion of Clifford family portraits, etc.

Burkett, M.E., and S.J. MacPherson. Lady Anne Clifford 1590–1676. Kendal (England): Abbot Hall Art Gallery, 1976. references to George Clifford, his portraits and his armorers.

Blair, Claude, and Lionello G. Boccia. Arme e armature (series: I quaderni dell'antiquariato). Milan, 1981.

Nickel, Helmut. "Arms and Armor From the Permanent Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 49, no. 1 (Summer 1991). pp. 22–23, 64, ill.

Williams, Alan R., and A. de Reuck. "Royal Armouries Monograph 4." In The Royal Armoury at Greenwich 1515–1649: A History of its Technology. Leeds: Royal Armouries, 1995. p. 108, ill. pl. 2 (color).

The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Thomas P. Campbell. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. p. 165, ill.

Nickel, Helmut, William Reid, Ian Eaves, Mario Scalini, Claude Gaier, Álvaro Soler Del Campo, Jean-Pierre Reverseau, Jan Piet Pyupe, Donald J. La Rocca, Jeffrey Forgeng, Jonathan Tavares, Dirk H. Breiding, Pierre Terjanian, and Mr. Ronald S. Lauder. The Armorer's Art: Essays in Honor of Stuart Pyhrr, edited by Donald J. La Rocca. Woonsocket, Rhode Island: Andrew Mowbray Inc. – Publishers, 2014. p. 9, ill. (color).

La Rocca, Donald J. "Stuart Pyhrr, the Consumate Curator of Arms and Armor." In The Armorer's Art: Essays in Honor of Stuart Pyhrr. Woonsocket, Rhode Island: Andrew Mowbray Inc. – Publishers, 2014. p. 9, ill. (color).

Norman, A. V. B., Ian Eaves, and Howard L. Blackmore. Arms & Armour In The Collection Of Her Majesty The Queen: European Armour. 1st Ed ed. London: Royal Collection Trust, 2016. pp. 8, ill. pp. 176, pp. 177, ill. pp. 180 fig. 66, ill. pp. 186–187.

Southwick, Leslie. "The Greenwich Armour of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, and others presented to and commissioned by the Prince between 1604 and 1612." Park Lane Arms Fair (Spring 2016). pp. 34, 37–38, figs. 9–10.



Related Objects

Terminal Lame of a Grand Guard from the Armor Garniture of George Clifford (1558–1605), Third Earl of Cumberland

Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: 1586 Medium: Steel, gold Accession: 36.98.1 On view in:Not on view

Field Armor Probably of Sir John Scudamore (1541 or 1542–1623)

Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: ca. 1587, restored and completed 1915 Medium: Steel, gold, leather Accession: 11.128.1 On view in:Gallery 371

Armor of Sir James Scudamore (1558–1619)

Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: ca. 1595–96 Medium: Steel, gold, leather Accession: 11.128.2 On view in:Gallery 371

Field Armor Probably of Sir John Scudamore (1541 or 1542–1623)

Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: ca. 1587, restored and completed 1915 Medium: Steel, gold, leather Accession: 11.128.1; 22.147.4a, b, .11 On view in:Gallery 371

Right Thigh and Knee Defense (Cuisse and Poleyn) for the Armor of Sir John Scudamore (1541 or 1542–1623)

Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: ca. 1587 Medium: Steel, gold, leather Accession: 22.147.4a, b On view in:Gallery 371