These four warriors running close together with overlapping shields illustrate the simple but effective tactical formation of the Greek infantry. Heavily armed soldiers were deployed in closely packed rows that moved as a unit, called a phalanx.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1891. Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 21: pp. 502-3.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1892. Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 22: pp. 534, 552.
von Bothmer, Dietrich and Prof. Mary B. Moore. 1976. Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum. United States of American. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Attic Black-Figured Neck-Amphorae, Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Fascicule 4.. pl. 38, 1-4, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Johnston, Alan W. 1979. Trademarks on Greek Vases. p. 167, Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips.
Raeck, Wulf. 1981. "Zum Barbarenbild in der Kunst Athens im 6. und 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. PhD diss." Ph.D. Diss. note 210. Universität Bonn.