Long after inhumation became widespread, the people of Chiusi and surrounding hamlets continued to cremate their dead. They deposited the ashes in anthropomorphizing urns, often equipped with articulated arms, jewelry, wigs, and even clothing. The lids of these urns represent a stylized portrait of the deceased. Earlier examples, especially those for warriors, were often topped with a bronze or clay helmet.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1940. Handbook of the Etruscan Collection. p. 13, fig. 44, New York: Marchbanks Press.
Gempeler, Robert D. 1973–1974. Die Etruskischen Kanopen: Herstellung, Typologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte. no. 160, p. 152, Einsiedeln: Benziger.
McCann, Anna Marguerite. 1978. Roman Sarcophagi in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 18, fig. 5, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Mertens, Joan R. 1993. "Reflections of an Italian Journey of an Early Attic Lekythos?." Metropolitan Museum Journal, 23: pp. 8-9, fig. 10.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. 2013. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. no. 4.99a, pp. 98, 118, 119, New Haven and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Huntsman, Theresa. 2014. "Hellenistic Etruscan Cremation Urns from Chiusi." Metropolitan Museum Journal, 49: p. 141, fig. 1.