Gymnastic training was an essential part of a boy's education. It was important for citizens to be in good physical condition, as they could be called up for military service. Athletes who competed in the Panhellenic games at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and Isthmia, as well as those held by other cities, such as the Panathenaic games of Athens, specialized in certain events and worked extensively with professional trainers.
Richter, Gisela M. A., Marjorie J. Milne, and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1922. Shapes of Greek Vases. New York.
Richter, Gisela M. A. and Marjorie J. Milne. 1935. Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases. p. 28, fig. 172, New York: Plantin Press.
Beazley, John D. 1963. Attic Red-figure Vase-painters, Vols. 1 and 2, 2nd ed. p. 1172, no. 21, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Beazley, John D. 1971. Paralipomena: Additions to Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters and to Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters [2nd edition]. p. 459, Oxford: Clarendon Press.