Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
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Terracotta calyx-krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)

Attributed to the Nekyia Painter
Period:
Classical
Date:
ca. 450–440 B.C.
Culture:
Greek, Attic
Medium:
Terracotta; red-figure
Dimensions:
H. 15 5/8 in. (39.7 cm) diameter 16 3/4 in. (42.5 cm)
Classification:
Vases
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1908
Accession Number:
08.258.21
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 159
Above, obverse and reverse, Herakles, Theseus, and Perithoos in Hades
Below, obverse, Apollo and Tityos; reverse, Zeus and giant

This important vase illustrates one of the stories that would have been sung or recited. To atone for having killed his wife and children in a fit of madness, Herakles entered the service of King Eurystheus of Tiryns, who imposed twelve tasks on him. The most difficult was to fetch Kerberos, the watchdog of the underworld. In the upper zone, Herakles with his guide, Hermes, stands beside Theseus and Perithoos, who were punished for attempting to carry off Persephone. Hades, the king of the underworld, is shown behind Perithoos. Around the circumference of the vase appear other heroes known chiefly from the Iliad and the Odyssey, each with his name inscribed. The two scenes in the lower zone depict further mythological punishments.
Inscription: The names of the figures are inscribed.
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Jacobsthal, Paul. 1934–1936. "The Nekyia Krater in New York." Metropolitan Museum Studies, 5: pp. 117-32, figs. 6-10.

Richter, Gisela M. A. and Marjorie J. Milne. 1935. Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases. pp. 7-8, figs. 57-58, New York: Plantin Press.

Richter, Gisela M. A. 1944. Greek Painting: The Development of Pictoral Representation from Archaic to Graeco-Roman Times. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Richter, Gisela M. A. 1950. The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks, 3rd edn. pp. 69, 393, fig. 130, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Richter, Gisela M. A. 1953. Handbook of the Greek Collection. pp. 100, 242, pl. 82b, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Bandinelli, Ranuccio Bianchi. 1958. Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Vol. 5. p. 403, fig. 529, Rome: Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

Beazley, John D. 1963[1942]. Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, Vols. 1 and 2, 2nd ed. p. 1086, no. 1 bottom, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Barron, John P. 1972. "New Light on Old Walls the Murals of the Theseion." The Journal of Hellenic Studies, : pl. VII, f.

Robertson, Martin and Cambridge University Press. 1975. A History of Greek Art, Vols. 1 and 2. p. 664 n. 200, Cambridge, England.

Felten, Wassiliki. 1975. Attische Unterweltsdarstellungen des VI. und V. Jh. v. Chr.. pp. 83-84, fig. 27, Munich: W. Fink.

Smith, H.R.W. 1976. Funerary Symbolism in Apulian Vase-Painting. pp. 45, 46, fig. 10, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Vermeule, Emily T. 1979. Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry. p. 15, fig. 8b, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1981–1999. Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vols. 1-8. Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1981. Aara-Aphlad, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 1. Aias I, no. 144, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1984. Aphrodisias-Athena, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 2. Apollon, no. 1072; Artemis, no. 1367, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Davies, Glenys. 1985. "The Significance of the Handshake Motif in Classical Funerary Art." American Journal of Archaeology, 89(4): p. 628 n. 6, fig. 2, pl. 68.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1986. Atherion-Eros, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 3. Elpenor, no. 7, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1988. Eros-Herakles, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 4. Hades, no. 151; Herakles, no. 3516, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Tiverios, Michalis A. 1989. Perikleia Panathenaia: A Krater of the Painter of Munich 2335. p. 78, Thessalonikē: Andromeda Oxford Limited.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1990. Herakles-Kenchrias, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 5. Hermes, nos. 588, 836; Gigantes, no. 336, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1992. Kentauroi-Oiax, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 6. Meleagros, no. 44; Nekyia, no. 13; Leto, no. 37, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1994. Oidipous-Theseus, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 7. Palamedes, no. 7; Peirithoos, no. 73; Persephone, no. 294; Theseus, no. 295, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1997. Thespiades-Zodiacus, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 8. Tityos, no. 7; Typhon, no. 26, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.

Pautasso, Antonella. 2002. "Agrai, Artemide ed il 'Tempio dell'ilisso'. Un problema da riconsiderare." Atti della Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. Rendiconti Classe di scienze morali storiche e filologiche, 13(4): fig. 15.

Palagia, Olga. 2005. "Interpretation of Two Athenian Friezes: The Temple on the Ilissos and the Temple of Athena Nike." Periklean Athens and its Legacy: Problems and Perspectives, : p. 181, fig. 15.12.

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Stampolidis, Professor Nicholas Chr. and Stavroula Oikonomou. 2014. Beyond: Death and Afterlife in Ancient Greece. no. 77, p. 154, Athens: Museum of Cycladic Art.

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