The iconography of this vase is emphatically martial. On the neck, a warrior appears between two horses; on the body is a procession of chariots. The painted decoration is enhanced by snakes added in clay. Snakes are traditionally associated with death because they can burrow under the ground and periodically shed their skin, a sign of renewal.
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Richter, Gisela M. A. 1953. Handbook of the Greek Collection. pp. 25, 175, pl. 15c, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
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von Bothmer, Dietrich. 1978. Antichnoe iskusstvo iz muzeia Metropoliten, Soedinennye Shtaty Ameriki: Katalog vystavki. no. 15, Moscow: Sovetskii Khudozhnik.
Moore, Mary B. 2004. "Horse Care as Depicted on Greek Vases before 400 B.C." Metropolitan Museum Journal, 39: pp. 35, 37-8, fig. 4.
Yatromanolakis, Dimitrios. 2016. Epigraphy of Art: Ancient Greek Vase-Inscriptions and Vase-Paintings p. 195 n. 59, Oxford: Archaeopress.