This standard bucchero shape is transformed into an exotic pitcher by incorporating numerous clay rams' heads, human heads, and bosses to the rim, neck, shoulder, and belly. The treatment is typical of Vulcian bucchero workshops.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1921. "Classical Accessions. III. Etruscan Pottery." Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 16 (5): p. 104, fig. 1.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1936. "The Technique of Bucchero Ware." Studi Etruschi, 10: pl. 20, 4.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1940. Handbook of the Etruscan Collection. p. 40, fig. 127, New York: Marchbanks Press.
Batignani, G. 1965. "“Le oinochoai di bucchero pesante di tipo 'chiusino.'." Studi Etruschi, 33: p. 311.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. 2013. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. no. 4.77a, pp. 100-1, New Haven and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.