The handles have the distinctive shape associated with a type of krater made in Vulci and exported to Etruscan settlements as far away as Spina in Northern Italy. The youths wearing winged boots and holding the bridles of their horses are almost certainly the twin gods, Castur and Pultuce (Roman: Castor and Pollux), the sons of Zeus; the two are known in Etruscan as Tinas Cliniar. These are the largest and most elaborate handles of this type now extant.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1961. "Ninety-First Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960-1961." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 20(2): p. 52.
Teitz, Richard Stuart. 1967. Masterpieces of Etruscan Art. no. 49, pp. 60-61, 150-51, Worcester, Mass.: Davis Press.
Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1986. Atherion-Eros, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 3. Dioskouroi/Tinas Cliniar, no. 17, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.
Picón, Carlos A. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome no. 337, pp. 293, 473, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. 2013. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. no. 5.21a,b, pp. II, 11, 66, 158–59, New Haven and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.