This unusual shape is often found with another distinctive container, a bird-shaped askos. Some scholars have proposed a connection with a wine ritual. Such vases, their painted ornaments heavily influenced by Greek geometric pottery, were produced at Vulci. The originally Near Eastern motif of two goats flanking a tree of life also occurs on a celebrated Euboean geometric krater found on Cyprus (74.51.965), which is on view in the early Greek galleries (The Belfer Court).
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1976. "One Hundred Sixth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for the Fiscal Year July 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Annual Report, 106: p. 45.
Milleker, Elizabeth J. 1992. "Ancient Art: Gifts from The Norbert Schimmel Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 49(4): p. 60.
Milleker, Elizabeth J. 1993. "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 1992-1993." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 51(2): p. 60.
Picón, Carlos A. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome no. 305, pp. 267, 467, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Paoletti, Orazio. 2009. "Ceramica Figurata Etrusco-geometrica: Qualche Osservazione." Etruria e Italia Preromana: Studi in Onore di Giovannangelo Camporeale, Studia Erudite 4, Vol. 2, Stefano Bruni, ed. pp. 658-59, fig. 7, Pisa: Fabrizio Serra.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. 2013. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. no. 4.87, pp. 107-109, 213, 306, New Haven and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.