The deep bowl originated in metal during the Hellenistic period and was reinterpreted in clay quickly and widely. The bust represents Dionysos, god of wine, an appropriately frequent subject for a drinking vessel. Pottery of this type is conventionally known as Calenian, after Cales, a site in Campania. Recent studies indicate that there were numerous centers of production in Italy and wide distribution to both the west and the east.
Christie, Manson & Woods International Inc. 2001. Antiquities. December 5–6, 2001. lot 500, p. 181.
Mertens, Joan R., Dr. 2002. "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2001-2002." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 60(2): pp. 8-9.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2002. "One Hundred Thirty-second Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 2001 through June 30, 2002." Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 132: p. 19.
Picón, Carlos A. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome no. 249, pp. 213, 453, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.