This helmet is formed as a dolphin-like sea monster, with furled brow, fierce eyes, sharp teeth, and a scaly body. It may have been inspired by the work of Filippo Negroli (ca. 1510–1579), whose helmets were conceived as three-dimensional sculpture.
William H. Riggs, Paris (until 1913; his gift to MMA).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "European Helmets 1450–1650: Treasures from the Reserve Collection," January 25, 2000–January 2001, no. 31.
Allou, Charles-Nicolas. "Etudes Sur Les Casques Du Moyen-Age, Part 2: Extrait D'un Ouvrage Inédit Sur Les Armes at Armures Du Moyen-Age." Memoires de la Société Royale de Antiquaires de France 11 (1835). p. 78.
"XVII Siècle - Ecole Francaise (Époque de Louis XIV)." L'Art Pour Tous: Encyclopedie de L'Art Industriel et Decoratif, 21st year, (July 30, 1882). p. 2222, figs. 4648–4650, no. 531.
Dean, Bashford. Handbook of Arms and Armor: European and Oriental, Including the William H. Riggs Collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Gilliss Press, January 1915. p. 71, pl. XXXV.
Dean, Bashford. Handbook of Arms and Armor: European and Oriental, Including the William H. Riggs Collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3rd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, April 1921. p. 71, pl. XXXV.
Dean, Bashford, and Robert T. Nichol. Handbook of Arms and Armor, European and Oriental, edited by Stephen V. Grancsay. 4th ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 1930. p. 133, fig. 85.
Scalini, Mario. Armature All'eroica Dei Negroli. Specchio del Bargelo, Vol. 38. Firenze: Museo Nazionale del Bargello, 1987. p. 29, fig. 20.
Pyhrr, Stuart W., José-A. Godoy, and Silvio Leydi. Heroic Armor of the Italian Renaissance: Filippo Negroli and His Contemporaries. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. p. 21.
Williams, Alan R. "The Steel of the Negroli." Metropolitan Museum Journal 34 (1999). p. 118, figs. 52–53.
Pyhrr, Stuart W. European Helmets, 1450–1650: Treasures from the Reserve Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Jan 25, 2000 - Dec 30, 2000. p. 22, no. 31, ill.
Williams, Alan. The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages & the Early Modern Period. History of Warfare, Vol. 12. Leiden: Brill, 2002. p. 243.