Albert Sands Southworth (American, West Fairlee, Vermont 1811–1894 Charlestown, Massachusetts)
Josiah Johnson Hawes (American, Wayland, Massachusetts 1808–1901 Crawford Notch, New Hampshire)
14.0 x 10.8 cm (5 1/2 x 4 1/4 in.)
Gift of I. N. Phelps Stokes, Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes, 1937
Not on view
Marking: Hallmark, BL: Scovill Mfg. Co. / Extra (see Spirit of Fact #2, p. 151)
Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes; [Holman's Print Shop, Boston]; I.N. Phelps Stokes, New York, 1937
Biography: Unitarian minister, abolitionist, and member of the Trancendentalist Club, James Freeman Clarke (1810-1888) spread transcendentalist teachings to the West, moving to Kentucky upon graduation from the Harvard Divinity School and founding the Western Messenger, the earliest transcendentalist periodical. After returning to Boston, he helped establish the Church of Disciples in 1841. Clarke and his peers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Ephraim Peabody, expanded the scope and role of transcendental thought and Unitarianism in the nineteenth century.