Image: 17.9 x 21.6 cm (7 1/16 x 8 1/2 in.)
Mount: 43.7 x 60.1 cm (17 3/16 x 23 11/16 in.)
Gilman Collection, Gift of The Howard Gilman Foundation, 2005
Not on view
In August 1852, Fenton set out for Russia at the invitation of his friend, the engineer Charles Vignoles, to photograph a suspension bridge that Vignoles was building for Czar Nicholas I across the Dnieper River near Kiev. With little experience but with obvious proficiency in Gustave Le Gray's "waxed paper" negative process, Fenton saw no reason to limit himself to that appointed task. When he returned to London in late November, his portfolio was filled with photographs of landmarks in Kiev, Saint Petersburg, and Moscow, the first photographs of Russia to be seen by the British public and the first ones by Roger Fenton.
Since its victory over Napoleon, Russia was viewed as the rising power of nineteenth-century Europe. Foreigners knew little of the immense empire outside of its capital, the thoroughly Western Saint Petersburg. But Moscow, with its multitude of gilded domes and the profile of its Kremlin towers, was an exotic sight, announcing Asia. Fenton photographed the cupolas of the Cathedral of the Assumption at eye level, from the lower bell arcade of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the city's highest building, looking west over Cathedral Square toward the churches of Terem Palace. The view shows, behind the cathedral, the modest Church of the Deposition of the Robe as it looked before a twentieth-century restoration would revive its original design. The Cathedral of the Assumption, built in 1475-79 by the Bolognese Ridolfo (Aristotele) Fioravanti for Grand Prince Ivan III, was the focal point of Russian religious life, where czars were crowned and patriarchs interred. Combining medieval Russian features with the harmonious geometry of the early Italian Renaissance, the church symbolized Moscow's ambition to be recognized as "the third Rome," replacing Constantinople, fallen to the Turks in 1453, as the center of Orthodox Christianity. Photographing from above and showing only portions of buildings and roofs, Fenton infused the composition with an exhilarating sense of airiness and light, the memorable image taking on the power of the architecture itself to proclaim the spiritual aspirations of a people.
Inscription: Inscribed in black ink on mount verso, BL: "Moscow. Domes of churches in the Kremlin"
(sold, Christie's South Kensington, lot 266, October 26, 1978); Gilman Paper Company Collection, New York
Hayward Gallery. "Roger Fenton, Photographer of the 1850s," February 4, 1988–April 17, 1988.
City Museum and Art Gallery. "Roger Fenton, Photographer of the 1850s," April 23, 1988–May 29, 1988.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," May 25, 1993–July 4, 1993.
Edinburgh International Festival, Edinburgh, Scotland. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," August 7, 1993–October 2, 1993.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," June 19, 1994–September 11, 1994.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "All the Mighty World," October 17, 2004–January 2, 2005.
J. Paul Getty Museum. "All the Mighty World," February 1, 2005–April 25, 2005.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "All the Mighty World," May 24, 2005–August 29, 2005.
Tate Britain. "All the Mighty World," September 25, 2005–January 2, 2006.
Gernsheim, Helmut, and Alison Gernsheim. Roger Fenton: Photographer of the Crimean War, His Photographs and His Letters from the Crimea. London, 1954. pl. 2.
Apraxine, Pierre. Photographs from the Collection of the Gilman Paper Company. Reeds Springs, Mo.: White Oak Press, 1985. pl. 54.
Lloyd, Valerie. Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850s. London: Hayward Gallery, 1988. no. 1, p. 29.
Hambourg, Maria Morris, Pierre Apraxine, Malcolm Daniel, Virginia Heckert, and Jeff L. Rosenheim. The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. pl. 79.
Baldwin, Gordon, Malcolm Daniel, and Sarah Greenough. All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852–1860. New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004. pl. 2.