Hand-held clappers commemorate an important event in Benin history, the victory of Oba Esigie over the Igala kingdom in the early sixteenth century. On the way to battle, Esigie and his army met the "bird of prophecy," which predicted disaster for Benin. Rather than submit to this fate, Esigie ordered the bird killed and went on to defeat his enemy. Ivory clappers depict the king and the queen mother; the latter is said to have used her vast spiritual powers to help her son prevail. Such instruments are played by chiefs at an annual palace festival celebrating Esigie's triumph.