Cylinder seal and modern impression: lion and sphinx over an antelope
Late Cypriot II
ca. 14th century B.C.
0.83 in. (2.11 cm)
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 173
Although engraved stones had been used as early as the seventh millennium B.C. to stamp impressions in clay, the invention in the fourth millennium B.C. of carved cylinders that could be rolled over clay allowed the development of more complex seal designs. These cylinder seals, first used in Mesopotamia, served as a mark of ownership or identification. Seals were either impressed on lumps of clay that were used to close jars, doors, and baskets, or they were rolled onto clay tablets that recorded information about commercial or legal transactions. The seals were often made of precious stones. Protective properties may have been ascribed to both the material itself and the carved designs. Seals are important to the study of ancient Near Eastern art because many examples survive from every period and can, therefore, help to define chronological phases. Often preserving imagery no longer extant in any other medium, they serve as a visual chronicle of style and iconography.
The modern impression of the seal is shown so that the entire design can be seen. This seal shows an animal contest scene in which a lion and sphinx confront each other over a recumbent or fallen antelope. A number of objects are arranged in the empty spaces of the pictorial field including a sun disk in a crescent, three circles, and a bull's head.
Said to be from Ayia Paraskevi, Cyprus.
1865–1872, found in Cyprus by General Luigi Palma di Cesnola; acquired by the Museum in 1874, purchased from General Luigi Palma di Cesnola.
Karageorghis, Vassos, in collaboration with Joan R. Mertens and Marice E. Rose. 2000. Ancient Art from Cyprus: The Cesnola Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 66, no. 104.