Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
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Paradise

Artist:
Federico Zuccaro (Zuccari) (Italian, Sant'Angelo in Vado 1540/42–1609 Ancona)
Date:
1565–77
Medium:
Pen and brown ink, brush and brown wash, watercolor, gouache, highlighted with white gouache, left and central sections squared in red chalk, on three sheets of brown paper, joined vertically. A piece of brown paper with figures of Christ, the Virgin, and St. John the Baptist, measuring 14.0 x 24.0 cm., has been affixed at the center of the drawing.
Dimensions:
15 7/8 × 44 13/16 in. (40.3 × 113.8 cm)
Classification:
Drawings
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1961
Accession Number:
61.201
Not on view
The present drawing is study for the fresco designed for, but never executed in, the Sala del Maggior Consiglio of the Doges' Palace, Venice. In this representation of Paradise, Christ is seated in judgment at the center and flanked by the Virgin and Saint John the Baptist who intercede for mankind. At the right appear a throng of Old Testament figures dominated by Adam, Eve, and Moses with the tablets of the law. At the left are ranged a host of saints of the New Dispensation: Saint Peter and Saint Paul with the other Apostles, Saint Catherine of Alexandria, Saint Lawrence, Saint Sebastian, Saint Francis, Saint Dominic, and many others. God the Father appears in glory at upper center, while the central foreground is occupied by angel musicians. Hermann Voss, who first published this drawing, suggested that it is Federico Zuccaro's project for the redecoration of the end wall of the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Palazzo Ducale after the fire of 1577. However, Walter Vitzthum pointed out the testimony of Vasari in the 1568 edition of the Lives and the stylistic evidence of the drawing itself indicate that this project is earlier; it must date from Federico's first visit to Venice in the mid 1560s. This Paradise may have been intended to replace Guariento's probably damaged Coronation of the Virgin on the end wall, more than a decade before the 1577 fire. In the Metropolitan Museum of Art's project, the reserves in the paper indicate the placement of the two doors that pierce the wall and of the top of the back of the central bench. The six pendentives indicated at the top margin suggest that Federico proposed a vaulted ceiling for the great room, instead of the flat wooden ceiling that at this narrow end was originally supported by eleven corbels. In the Musée du Louvre, Paris, there is another large design for the same scheme (Inv. 4546), which differs from our drawing most notably in that the central subject is the Coronation of the Virgin. Though later in his career Federico Zuccaro executed a painting for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio (Frederick Barharossa Submitting to Pope Alexander III), the Paradise that eventually replaced Guariento's Coronation is a late work of Jacopo Tintoretto. New information concerning the Paradise in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio has recently been supplied by Juergen Schulz.
Inscription: Annotated in graphite at lower left, "Taddeo Zucchero" (almost illegible); annotated in nineteenth-century handwriting, in graphite and gone over in pen and brown ink on reverse of old mount, "Taddeo Zucchero / The Cieling [sic] of the Cathedral / at Urbino"
Possibly Pierre Crozat (French, Toulouse 1665–1740 Paris); Crozat sale, April 10-May 13, 1741; Baron von Stumm(according to Hermann Voss); Hermann Voss (German, 1884–1969); Julius Böhler, Munich, 1961; Vendor: Julius Böhler, Munich
Milwaukee Art Museum. "Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari, 1550-1600," November 17, 1989–January 14, 1990.

National Academy of Design, New York. "Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari," March 13, 1990–April 29, 1990.

National Academy Museum. "Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari, 1550-1600," March 13, 1990–April 29, 1990.

Musée du Louvre, Paris. "Le Paradis de Tintoret," February 8, 2006–May 8, 2006.

Walter Vitzthum "Zuccari's 'Paradise' for the Doges' palace." Burlington Magazine. vol. 96, September. London, 1954, p. 291.

Hermann Voss "A project of Federico Zuccari for the "Paradise" in the Doges' palace" Burlington Magazine. vol. 96, no. 17, June 1954, p. 172 (dated to 1582, during Federico Zuccaro's second trip to Venice).

Detlef Heikamp "I viaggi dI Federico Zuccaro." Paragone. nos. 8-9, 1958, p. 47, note 8.

Julius Böhler, Munich Zeichnungen alter meister. Sale catalogue (June-September, 1961). Munich, 1961, no. 66, repr.

Detlef Heikamp "Federico Zuccari a Firenze, 1575-1579" Paragone. no. 205, March 1967, p. 65, note 21.

John Gere Dessins de Taddeo et Federico Zuccaro Exh. cat., Paris, Musée du Louvre, 42nd Exposition du Cabinet des Dessins, 1969. Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1969, pp. 46-47, under no. 49.

Charles De Tolnay "Il Paradiso di Tintoretto. Note sull'interpretazione della tela in Palazzo Ducale." Arte Veneta. vol. 24, 1970, p. 105, fig. 137.

S. Sinding-Larsen Christ in the Council Hall. Studies in the Religious Iconography of the Venetian Republic (Acta and Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, V). Rome, 1974, pp. 58, 61, pl. 44.

Juergen Schulz "Tintoretto and the first competition for the Ducal Palace 'Paradise'." Arte veneta. vol. 34, 1980, pp.112-26.

Jacob Bean, Lawrence Turčić 15th and 16th Century Italian Drawings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1982, pp. 272-73, no. 276, repr., ill.

John Gere, Philip Pouncey Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in The British Museum. Vol. 5: Artists Working in Rome, c. 1550 to c. 1640. with the ass. of Rosalind Wood, London, 1983, p. 182.

William R. Rearick Paolo Veronese: disegni e dipinti Exh. cat., Fondazione Giorgio Cini. Venice, 1988, p. 103, under no. 65.

James Mundy, Elizabeth Ourusoff De Fernandez-Gimenez Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari, 1550 - 1600 Exh. cat., Milwaukee Art Museum (November 17, 1989 - January 14, 1990), and National Academy of Design, New York (March 13 - April 29, 1990). Milwaukee., 1989, pp. 184-85, no. 57 (exh. New York only).

W. R. Rearick "More Veronese Drawings from the Sagredo Collection" Master Drawings. Vol. 33, no. 2, 1995, pp. 138, 143, notes 22, 26.

Cristina Acidini Luchinat "Da Michelangelo a Raffaello, due modelli opposti per il 'Giudizio' nella cupola." Der Maler Federico Zuccari: ein römischer Virtuoso von europäischem Ruhm ; Akten des internationalen Kongresses der Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rom und Florenz, 23. - 26. Februar 1993. Römisches Jahrbuch der Bibliotheca Hertziana. Ed. by Matthias Winner, Munich and Rome, 1999, p. 123 and note 25.

Cristina Acidini Luchinat Taddeo e Federico Zuccari: Fratelli pittori del Cinquecento. 2 vols., Milan, Rome, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 238-239, 261, note 97, fig. 27, ill.

Cristina Acidini Luchinat "Federico Zuccari a Venezia." Per l'arte: da Venezia a l'Europa. Studi in onore di Giuseppe Maria Pilo. Vol. 1, Dall'antichita' al Caravaggio. Venice, 2001, pp. 236-37, 261, note 97, fig. 27.

William R. Rearick Il disegno veneziano del Cinquecento. Milan, 2001, pp. 136, 256.

Michel Hochmann "Venis et Rome 1500-1600: deux écoles de peinture et leurs échanges." Hautes études médievales et modernes. 2004, pp. 410-13, note 40.

Jean Habert "Venis et le Paradis. Un concours au palais des Doges." Le Paradis de Tintoret. Un concours pour le palais des Doges. Ed. by Jean Habert, 2006, pp. 32-33, 37-40, 60, figs. 16-17, and fig. A.

Catherine Loisel "Le Paradis de Federico Zuccaro: deux études par un peintre non vénetien." Le Paradis de Tintoret. Un concours pour le palais des Doges. Exh. cat. ed. by Jean Habert, Milan and Paris, 2006, pp. 68-69, 72-73, no. 2, repr.



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