Apollo sitting on Parnassus surrounded by the muses and famous poets
Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian, Argini (?) ca. 1480–before 1534 Bologna (?))
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Urbino 1483–1520 Rome)
Sheet: 14 x 18 7/16 in. (35.6 x 46.9 cm)
Gift of Henry Walters, 1917
Not on view
Raphael's 'Parnassus' in the Vatican is the paradigmatic representation of the subject where Apollo on Parnassus is surrounded by the muses and famous poets, from which all later versions drew inspiration. Since the room in which it was painted, the Stanza della Segnatura (thought to have been the private library of Pope Julius II r. 1503–13) was not publicly accessible until well into the seventeenth century, it was Marcantonio's print that established its canonical status. Numerous differences between the engraving and the completed fresco, however, indicate that the engraving records an early idea for the composition based on a lost drawing by Raphael.
Inscription: Lettered on plate lower center 'RAPHAEL PINXIT IN VATICANO' below which, the monogram 'MAF'
Adam von Bartsch Le Peintre graveur. Vienna, 1803.
Henri Delaborde Marc Antonio Raimondi étude historique et critique, suivie d'un catalogue raisonné des ouevres du maitre. Paris, 1887.
Innis Shoemaker, Elizabeth Broun The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi. Lawrence, 1981.
Grazia Bernini Pezzini, Stefania Massari, Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò Raphael Invenit: stampe da Raffaello nelle collezioni dell'Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica Exh. cat. Rome, Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica. Quasar , Rome, Rome, 1985, cat. no. Segnatura II.1, pp. 34-35, ill.
Stefania Massari Tra mito e allegoria: immagini a stampa nel '500 e '600. Rome, 1989, cat. no. 6, p. 18, ill.
Clay Dean, Theresa Fairbanks, Lisa Pon, Yale University Art Gallery Changing Impressions: Marcantonio Raimondi and Sixteenth-Century Print Connoisseurship. Exh. cat. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, December 14, 1999 - February 13, 2000, cat. no. 26 & 27, pp. 78, 62-64, ill.