Acala (literally, “immovable”) is a wrathful manifestation of Manjushri. He wields a sword to dispatch ignorance and a noose to snare disbelievers. His enflamed wide eyes and a facial grimace exposing teeth express his fearsome aspect. He kneels with one knee on the ground, evoking his role as a protector of the earth. He is set in a flaming aureole, his knowledge field, and is honored with an elaborate archway (torana) topped by Garuda fighting two nagas. Numerous protective emanations surround him in a series of registers; in the lower register, a Vajracharya priest performs rituals for the benefit of the donor family seated opposite.