Windmill and Lock (Liber Studiorum, part VI, plate 27)
Designed and etched by Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
William Say (British, Lakenham, near Norwich 1768–1834 London)
Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
June 1, 1811
Etching and mezzotint; first state of three
plate: 7 x 10 1/4 in. (17.8 x 26 cm)
sheet: 8 7/16 x 11 5/8 in. (21.4 x 29.5 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1928
Not on view
Turner distilled his ideas about landscape In "Liber Studiorum" (Latin for Book of Studies), a series of seventy prints plus a frontispiece published between 1807 and 1819. In this case he probably etched the image directly onto the copper plate without a preliminary drawing, deriving it from his 1810 oil "Grand Junction Canal at Southall Mill." The conception echoes a famous painting then attributed to Rembrandt ("The Mill", now at the National Gallery, Washington), but mostly celebrates the progress of British commerce. Directed by Turner, the professional engraver Say added mezzotint to detail the windmill, shown at sunset above men who work the gates of a lock near a white horse. The letter "P" above the image indicates Turner's category of Pastoral landscape.
Signature: in plate: "Drawn & Etched by I.M.W. Turner, R.A./ Engraved by W. Say Engraver to H.I.H. the Duke of Gloucester"
Inscription: in plate, above image: "P"; below: "Published June 1. 1811 by Mr. Turner, Queen Ann Street West"
Vendor: P. & D. Colnaghi & Co.
Finberg 27 i/iii; Rawlinson 27 i/iii
William George Rawlinson Turner's Liber Studiorum: A Description and A Catalogue. Macmillan & Co., 2nd ed. London, 1906, cat. no. 27 i/iii, pp. 59-61.
Alexander Joseph Finberg The History of Turner's Liber Studiorum, with a new catalogue raisonné. Ernest Benn Limited, London, 1924, cat. no. 27 i/iii, pp. 106-8.
Gillian Forrester Turner's 'Drawing Book': The Liber Studiorum, exh. cat., London, Tate Gallery, 20 February–2 June. London, 1996, illustrates: engraver's proof with watercolor (plate 5), and second published state, 1811 (fig. 27i, and plate, 6), cat. no. 27, pp. 77-8, 83.