East Gate, Winchelsea, Sussex (Liber Studiorum, part XIV, plate 67)
Designed and etched by Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
Samuel William Reynolds, the elder (British, London 1773–1835 London)
Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
January 1, 1819
Etching and mezzotint; second state of four
plate: 6 7/8 x 10 1/2 in. (17.5 x 26.7 cm)
sheet: 7 15/16 x 11 1/2 in. (20.2 x 29.2 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1928
Not on view
Turner distilled his ideas about landscape In "Liber Studiorum" (Latin for Book of Studies), a series of seventy prints plus a frontispiece published between 1807 and 1819. To establish the compositions, he made brown watercolor drawings, then etched outlines onto copper plates. Professional engravers usually developed the tone under Turner's direction and Reynolds here added mezzotint to describe sheep being driven through medieval ruins. Establihsed on the Sussex coast by Edward I as a fortified port, Winchelsea had long been separated from the sea, and been abandoned. Sunlit marshland is glimpsed here through the arched gate, with the town's history hinted at by the sailor approaching at left. The picturesque decay and rustic activity led Turner to place the print within his category of Pastoral landscape, indicated by the "P" in the upper margin.
Signature: in plate: "Drawn & Etched by I .M. W. Turner Esq. R.A.P.P. / Engraved by S. W. Reynolds"
Inscription: in plate, above image: "P"; below: "Pub. Jan. 1. 1819, by I. M. W. Turner. Queen Anne Street West"
Vendor: P. & D. Colnaghi & Co.
Finberg 67 ii/iv; Rawlinson 67 ii/iv
William George Rawlinson Turner's Liber Studiorum: A Description and A Catalogue. Macmillan & Co., 2nd ed. London, 1906, cat. no. 67 ii/iv, p. 159.
Alexander Joseph Finberg The History of Turner's Liber Studiorum, with a new catalogue raisonné. Ernest Benn Limited, London, 1924, cat. no. 67 ii/iv, pp. 266-8.
Gillian Forrester Turner's 'Drawing Book': The Liber Studiorum, exh. cat., London, Tate Gallery, 20 February–2 June. London, 1996, illustrates: related watercolor, ca. 1807-8 (Tate Britain), and first published state, 1819, cat. no. 67, p. 129.