Recto: Temple Types: in Antis and Prostyle (Vitruvius, Book 3, Chapter 2, nos. 2, 3); Verso: Temple Types: Peripteral (Vitruvius, Book 3, Chapter 2, no. 5).
Attributed to a member of the Sangallo family (Florence, ca. 1530–1545)
Original Treatise Written by Marcus Pollio Vitruvius (Roman, active late 1st century B.C.)
Pen and dark brown ink
Sheet: 6 1/8 x 10 1/2 in. (15.5 x 26.6 cm)
Manuscripts, Drawings, Ornament & Architecture
Purchase, Bequest of W. Gedney Beatty, by exchange, 2008
Not on view
A recent discovery, this sheet and seven others (acc. nos. 2008.105.1-8) comprised a manuscript draft for an Italian edition of the sole surviving architectural treatise of Roman antiquity, Ten Books on Architecture by Marcus Pollius Vitruvius (late first century B.C.). Had the project been completed, it would have ranked among the brilliantly imaginative works of Renaissance interpretive architectural theory. The drawings also exhibit a beautifully expressive handling of the pen. Comparisons of style as well as of the shorthand notation in the sketching of human figures suggest a close kinship with drawings by Bastiano "Aristotile" da Sangallo (Florence, 1481 – Florence 1551) and the collaborators that helped him draw and write the motifs of marginalia in a printed 1486 edition of Vitruvius (Biblioteca Corsiniana, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome) that was reworked in the 1530s. By all accounts a virtuoso stage set designer, Bastiano da Sangallo-the cousin and closest collaborator of Antonio da Sangallo "The Younger" and Giovanni Battista da Sangallo "Il Gobbo"-was Michelangelo's assistant in the Sistine Chapel and took the surname of "Aristotile" for his love of antiquity. Members of the Sangallo family had been deeply interested in Vitruvius for at least two generations.
Vitruvius sought to classify temples according to type, and the Florentine artist here has translated his text quite closely. The words at the top of the text may be rendered into English more or less as follows: "It will be a temple in antis when it has the antae projecting in front of the walls that enclose the cella, and in the center between the antae, two columns, and over them the pediment, which is built with the kind of symmetrical proportions described later in this work. An example will be found at the Three Fortunes in one of the three that is nearest the Colline Gate." The bottom paragraph describes the prostyle temple as being similar to the temple in antis, but having two columns at its corners. Here, Vitruvius cited the example of the Temple of Jove and Faunus on the Isola Tiberina in Rome.
Text and Drawings for an Italian Edition of Vitruvius's Ten Books on Architecture.
Inscription: Recto is inscribed at upper left (Vitruvius, Book 3, Chapter 2, no. 2): "In Antis sara quando hauera nella forma li / An te oudro facciate dello mura li quail serano / intorno la cella : e tra le Ante de mezzo. Sono due cholone e sopra la posta altezza a glie si quella simotra cio e misura : la quale giu sotto si veddi i la penata e nel profilo. E lo ex membra / re di questo Tempio era alli Tri forpinij / da Tre parti la quella encima : alla parete / cholina i[n] roma."
Then, drawing of temple is inscribed within: "FAVNO"; and below drawing along lower border of sheet (Book 3, Chapter 2, no. 3): "Prostilos . cio e chontra colonnato ha ognj cosa chome in Antis ma le cholone chontra le due ante an/gulare . E di sopra li Epistilii sicome anchora in Antis ciascuna dalla destra e dalla sinistra/ nelle angulare uodrsitro cioe nelli anguli dela fronte . Lo esemplare di questo e nel isola Tiberi/na nel Tempio Di Gioue e di Fauno . Sichome qui soctto si uede . la pianta . e l pro/filo alla foggia di diti Tempi."
Verso is inscribed (Book 3, Chapter 2, no. 5): "Ma il peripteros . cio e mura alate da Quattro …andi . sara quello che auera nella fronte e nel porticho / sei cholone e ne le ale chon li angulari undici accioche il spatio della largezza dello in tere choloni o sia / dale mura in torno : insino . alli chantonj del porticho acioche facia ilanditto intorno alla cella / del Tempio sichome e nel porticho di Metello di Gioue statorio o di Hermodio e alli Mariani / il Tempio dello onore e della Virtu fato da mutio senza porticho : lo esempia re di questo / peripteros . qui soto si uede la piñata . el profile di opera doricha e chomerano li diti Tempi."
(C. C. Bambach; May 2008)
Mallams Fine Art Auctioneers, Oxford, sale June 8, 2007, lot 143; Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich; Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Drawings and Prints: Selections from the Permanent Collection," July 14, 2008–October 19, 2008.