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南宋 傳李唐 晉文公復國圖 卷
Duke Wen of Jin Recovering His State

Artist:
Attributed to Li Tang (Chinese, ca. 1070s–ca. 1150s)
Period:
Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279)
Date:
mid-12th century
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink and color on silk
Dimensions:
Image: 11 9/16 in. × 27 ft. 2 in. (29.4 × 828 cm) Overall with mounting: 11 7/8 in. × 40 ft. 9 1/16 in. (30.2 × 1242.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Ex coll.: C. C. Wang Family, Gift of The Dillon Fund, 1973
Accession Number:
1973.120.2
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 210
An important example of early "history painting," Duke Wen of Jin Recovering His State illustrates episodes from the life of Chong'er of the state of Jin, who, after spending nineteen years in exile, returned to Jin as Duke Wen (r. 636–628 B.C.) to dominate the other feudal princes. This triumphant story of political recovery was used by the first Southern Song emperor, Gaozong, who had been a hostage of the Jurchen Jin before he escaped to reestablish the Song court in the south at Hangzhou. As emperor, he sponsored a number of narrative painting and calligraphy projects extolling the virtues and legitimacy of his "dynastic revival."

Zhou Mi (1232–1298) ascribed the painting to Li Tang and the text to Gaozong. This version of the story of Duke Wen follows the Zuojuan account of about the second century B.C. The drawing of the figures shows the influence of Li Gonglin (ca. 1049–1106), while the modeling of the rocks suggests the method of Guo Xi (ca. 1000–ca. 1090), the great landscapist of Henan Province whom Li Tang must have known in his youth.
Inscription: No artist's inscription, signature, or seal

Inscriptions on the painting

Attributed to Song emperor Gaozong 宋高宗 (r. 1127–62), 31 columns in semi-cursive script, undated:

及宋,宋襄公贈之以馬二十乘。

及鄭,鄭文公亦不禮焉。叔詹諫曰:“臣聞天之所啟,人弗及也。晉公子有三焉,天其或者將建諸,君其禮焉。男女同姓,其生不蕃。晉公子,姬出也,而至於今,一也。離外之患,而天不靖晉國,殆將啟之,二也。有三士足以上人而從之,三也。晉、鄭同儕,其過子弟固將禮焉,況天之所啟乎。”弗聼。

及楚,楚子饗之,曰:“公子若反晉國,則何以報不榖?”對曰:“子女玉帛,則君有之;羽毛齒革,則君地生焉。其波及晉國者,君之餘也,其何以報君?”曰:“雖然,何以報我?”對曰:“若以君之靈,得反晉國,晉、楚治兵,遇於中原,其辟君三舍。若不獲命,其左執鞭弭,右屬橐鞬,以與君周旋。”子玉請殺之。楚子曰:“晉公子廣而儉,文而有禮,其從者肅而寬,忠而能力。晉侯無親,外內惡之。吾聞姬姓唐叔之後,其後衰者也。其將由晉公子乎?天將興之,誰能廢之?違天必有大咎。”乃送諸秦。

秦伯納女五人,懷嬴與焉。奉匜沃盥,既而揮之。怒曰:“秦、晉匹也,何以卑我!”公子懼,降服而囚。他日,公享之。子犯曰:“吾不如衰之文也,請使衰從。”公子賦 《河水》,公賦 《六月》。趙衰曰:“重耳拜賜。”公子降拜稽首,公降一級而辭焉。衰曰:“君稱所以佐天子者命重耳,重耳敢不拜?”

及河,子犯以璧授公子,曰:“臣負羈絏,從君巡於天下,臣之罪甚多矣。臣猶知之,而況君乎?請由此亡。”公子曰:“所不與舅氏同心者,有如白水。”投其璧于河。

濟河,圍令狐,入桑泉,取臼衰。二月甲午晉師軍于廬柳,秦伯使公子縶如晉師,師退軍于郇。辛丑狐偃及秦,晉之大夫盟於郇。壬寅公子入于晉師,丙午入于曲沃,丁未朝於武宮。

Label strip

Unidentified artist, 1 column in standard script, undated:

李唐畫 《晉文公復國圖》

Colophons

1. Qiao Kuicheng 喬簀成 (13th–14th c.), 12 columns in standard script, undated; 2 seals:

右圖晉文公復國故實,間書《左氏傳》於左。始于宋襄贈馬,至朝於武宮而止。前輩跋謂為吳元瑜畫,黃魯直書。余諦觀筆法,圖乃李唐,書乃思陵,不可誣也。且余家向藏 《晉公子復國圖》 一巻,為晞古妙筆。前有奔狄、過衛、適齊、及曹四事。其後布景則同,而無書。此則逸其前,而書《左傳》於後。蓋思陵少年書學魯直,後劉豫令能書者為間,遂改學六朝人法,自成一家,無怪乎後人之誤評耳。余乃削其跋,正其名,而著語于後,世必有韙余言者。北燕喬簀成識。 [印]: 中山父印、喬簣成印

2. Shi Yan 石巗 (14th c.), 16 columns in clerical script, dated 1334; 3 seals:

李唐,字晞古,河陽人。在宣、靖間已著名畫院。南渡後,流寓臨安,賣畫自給,無有識者,途窮日困。嘗作詩曰:“雪裡煙村雨裡灘,看之容易作之難。早知不入時人眼,多買臙脂畫牡丹。”可概見矣。後有中使識之,奏聞,復入待詔,一變前學,遂為畫院之首。此圖前後有“宣和”大、小璽,後人便目為北宋,而不知為晞古早年之筆,高古迺爾,尤足珍也。至於高宗書傳,亦與晚年書法不同,想初駐臨安時,流離播遷,冀圖復國,如登天上。見此圖有不驚心感嘆者乎。節書《左傳》,有以夫仲山訂正而改題,洵有據哉。元統二年秋八月既望石巗題,是日弁陽周公謹同觀。 [印]: 墨池清興、石氏書印、平臺

3. Wu Kuan 吳寬 (1435–1504), 13 columns in standard script, dated 1470; 1 seal:

宋高宗萬機之暇喜書經文,嘗曰:“寫字當寫經書,不惟學字,又得經書不忘。”曾寫有 《十三經》,刻石禁中。迨元初,楊璉真珈發宋諸陵造塔,取故經石為塔址,遂散落如雲煙矣。予所見真跡惟 《毛詩》頗多,毎十篇作一卷,虛其左,令馬和之補圖,大抵乃德壽宮事。此巻則李畫在前,人物類伯時,樹石、宮宇肖黃筌,較勝晚年之作。而書在後者,益證為思陵早年筆,有虞永興風規,足稱二絕。成化六年四月望日吳寬題。 [印]: 原博

4. Zhou Tianqiu 周天球 (1514–1595), 1 column in semi-cursive script; 2 seals:

六止生周天球觀。 [印]: 江左、周天球印

Collectors' seals

Song emperor Huizong 宋徽宗 (r.1101–1125)
宣和殿寳
雙龍印
宣和
御書

Cai Jing 蔡京 (1047–1126)
蔡京珍玩

Song emperor Gaozong 宋高宗 (r. 1127–1162)
紹興
紹興

Chen Baosheng 陳寳生 (13th–14th c.)
陳氏彥廉
春草堂圖書印

An Guo 安國 (16th c.)
明安國玩

Wu Ting 吳廷 (17th c.)
吳廷之印
吳廷書畫之印
新安吳廷
用卿
用卿

Gao Shiqi 高士奇 (1645–1704)
江村

Qing emperor Qianlong 清帝乾隆 (r.1736–1795)
乾隆御覽之寳
乾隆鋻賞石渠寳笈
太上皇帝之寳養心殿鋻藏寳
三希堂精鋻璽
宜子孫

Qing emperor Xuantong 清帝宣統 (r. 1909–1911)
宣統御覽之寳
宣統鋻賞
天逸齋精鋻璽

Ding Huikang 丁惠康 (1905–1979)
丁惠康顧安宓夫婦同觀

Wang Jiqian 王季遷 (C. C. Wang, 1907–2003)
震澤王氏季遷收藏印
懷雲樓鋻賞書畫之記

Unidentified:
世家
合同

Illegible: 4
Ding Huikang , Shanghai (before 1949) ; C. C. Wang Family , New York (by 1949–1973; sold to MMA)
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