Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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南宋 馬和之 詩經豳風圖 卷
Odes of the State of Bin

Artist:
Ma Hezhi (Chinese, ca. 1130–ca. 1170) , and Assistants
Period:
Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279)
Date:
mid-12th century
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink, color, gold and silver on silk
Dimensions:
Image: 10 15/16 in. × 21 ft. 9 1/4 in. (27.8 × 663.6 cm) Overall with mounting: 13 13/16 in. × 45 ft. 10 1/2 in. (35.1 × 1398.3 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Ex coll.: C. C. Wang Family, Purchase, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, by exchange, 1973
Accession Number:
1973.121.3
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 210
This handscroll is one of a set that illustrates the 305 poems in the Shijing (The Book of Odes), a work traditionally believed to have been compiled by Confucius (551–479 B.C.). The scrolls were made at the court of Gaozong (r. 1127–62), the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty, and the transcriptions they bear, probably inscribed by either a scribe or a consort, are written in Gaozong's regular-script style. The accompanying paintings are the work of Ma Hezhi, a court artist known for his "orchid-leaf" brushstroke, a distinctive type of undulating brush line.

The poems illustrated in this scroll are known as the Odes of the State of Bin, for they were believed to have been the songs of Bin (in modern Shensi Province), the ancient homeland of the founders of the Zhou dynasty (ca. 1100–256 B.C.). These odes are the last in the section known as Guofeng ("Airs from the States"), which contains poems gathered from all over the realm so that the Zhou king might learn what his people were thinking and feeling.
Inscription: No artist’s inscription, signature or seal

Label strip

Zhao Jianbai 趙堅白 (active late 19th c.?), 1 column in semi-cursive script, undated; 4 seals:

《豳風圖 》 歸安趙堅白珍藏。 [印]: 堅白墨緣、渭秝審定 [另二印不辨]

Inscriptions on the painting[1]

Unidentified artist in the style of the Song emperor Gaozong (r. 1127-1162), in 7 sections:

Section 1 (35 columns in standard script, undated):

In the seventh month the fire ebbs;
In the ninth month I hand out the coats.
In the days of the first [month] sharp frosts;
In the days of the second [month] keen winds.
Without coats, without serge,
How should they finish the year?
In the days of the third [month] they plough;
In the days of the fourth [month] out I step
With my wife and children,
Bringing hampers to the southern acre
Where the field-hands come to take good cheer.

In the seventh month the fire ebbs;
In the ninth month I hand out the coats.
But when the spring days grow warm
And the oriole sings
The girls take their deep baskets
And follow the path under the wall
To gather the soft mulberry-leaves:

In the tenth month the cricket goes under my bed.
I stop up every hold to smoke out the rats,
Plugging the windows, burying the doors:
'Come, wife and children,
The change of the year is at hand.
Come and live in this house.'

In the sixth month we eat wild plums and cherries,
In the seventh month we boil mallows and beans.
In the eighth month we dry the dates,
In the tenth month we take the rice
To make with it the spring wine,
So that we may be granted long life.
In the seventh month we eat melons,
In the eighth month we cut the gourds,
In the ninth month we take the seeding hemp,
We gather bitter herbs, we cut the ailanto for firewood,
That our husbandmen may eat.

In the ninth month we make ready the stackyards,
In the tenth month we bring in the harvest,
Millet for wine, millet for cooking, the early and the late,
Paddy and hemp, beans and wheat.
Come, my husbandmen,
My harvesting is over,
Go up and begin your work in the house,
In the morning gather thatch-reeds,
In the evening twist rope;
'The spring days are drawing out;
They gather the white aster in crowds.
A girl's heart is sick and sad
Till with her lord she can go home.'

I the seventh month the fire ebbs;
In the eighth month they pluck the rushes,
In the silk-worm month they gather the mulberry-leaves,
Take that chopper and bill
To lop the far boughs and high,
Pull towards them the tender leaves.
In the seventh month the shrike cries;
In the eighth month they twist thread,
The black thread and the yellow:
'With my red dye so bright
I make a robe for my lord.'

In the fourth month the milkwort is in spike,
In the fifth month the cicada cries.
In the eighth month the harvest is gathered,
In the tenth month the boughs fall.
In the days of the first [month] we hunt the racoon,
And take those foxes and wild-cats
To make furs for our Lord.
In the days of the second [month] is the great Meet;
Practice for deeds of war.
The one-year-old [boar] we keep;
The three-year-old we offer to our Lord.

In the fifth month the locust moves its leg,
In the sixth month the grasshopper shakes its wing,
In the seventh month, out in the wilds;
In the eighth month in the farm,
In the ninth month, at the door.
Go quickly on to the roofs.
Soon you will be beginning to sow your many grains.

In the days of the second [month] they cut the ice with tingling blows;
In the days of the third [month] they bring it into the cold shed.
In the days of the fourth [month] very early
They offer lambs and garlic.
In the ninth month are shrewd frosts;
In the tenth month they clear the stackgrounds.
With twin pitchers they hold the village feast,
Killing for it a young lamb.
Up they go into their lord's hall,
Raise the drinking-cup of buffalo-horn:
'Hurray for our lord; may he live for ever and ever!'

The Seventh Month


豳七月,毛詩國風
七月, 陳王業也,周公遭變,故陳后稷。先公風化之所由,致王業之艱難也。七月流火。九月授衣。一之日觱發。二之日栗烈,無衣無褐,何以卒歲?三之日于耜。四之日擧趾,同我婦子,饁彼南畝,田畯至喜。七月流火。九月授衣。春日載陽,有鳴倉庚。女執懿筐,遵彼微行,爰求柔桑。春日遲遲,采蘩祁祁。女心傷悲,殆及公子同歸。七月流火。八月萑葦,蠶月條桑,取彼斧斨,以伐遠揚,猗彼女桑。七月鳴鵙。八月載績,載玄載黃。我朱孔陽,為公子裳。四月秀葽。五月鳴蜩。八月其穫。十月鄖蘀。一之日于貉,取彼狐貍,為公子裘。二之日其同,載纘武功,言私其豵 ,獻豣于公。五月斯螽動股。六月莎雞振羽。七月在野。八月在宇。九月在戶。十月蟋蟀入我牀下。穹窒熏鼠,塞向墐戶。嗟我婦子, 曰為改歲,入此室處。六月食鬱及薁。七月亨葵及菽。八月剝棗。十月穫稻,為此春酒,以介眉壽。七月食瓜。八月斷壺。九月叔苴,采荼薪樗,食我農夫。九月築場圃。十月納禾稼,黍稷重穋,禾麻菽麥,嗟我農夫,我稼旣同,上人執宮功,晝爾于茅,宵爾索綯。亟其乘屋,其始播百榖。二之日鑿冰沖沖。三之日納于凌陰。四之日其蚤,獻羔祭韭。九月肅霜。十月滌場,朋酒斯饗。曰殺羔羊,躋彼公堂。稱彼兇觥,萬壽無疆。
七月

Section 2 (10 columns in standard script, undated):

OH, kite-owl, kite-owl,
You have taken my young.
Do not destroy my house.
With such love, such toil
To rear those young ones I strove!

Before the weather grew damp with rain
I scratched away the bark of that mulberry-tree
And twined it into window and door.
'Now, you people down below,
If any of you dare affront me....'

My hands are all chafed
With plucking so much rush flower;
With gathering so much bast
My mouth is all sore.
And still I have not house or home!

My wings have lost their gloss,
My tail is all bedraggled.
My house is all to pieces,
Tossed and battered by wind and rain.
My only song, a cry of woe!

The Owl

鴟鴞,周公救亂也。成王未知周公之志,公乃為詩以遺王,名之曰鴟鴞焉。鴟鴞鴟鴞,旣取我子,無毀我室。恩斯勤斯,鬻子之閔斯。迨天之未陰雨,徹彼桑土,綢繆牖戶。今女下民,或敢侮予。予手拮据,予所將荼。予所蓄租,予口卒瘏, 曰予未有室家。予羽譙譙,予尾翛翛,予室翹翹,風雨所漂搖,予維音嘵嘵 。
鴟鴞

Section 3 (23 columns in standard script, undated):

I went to the eastern hills;
Long was it till I came back.
Now I am home from the east;
How the drizzling rain pours!
I am back from the east,
But my heart is very sad.
You made for me that coat and gown
'Lest my soldier should go secret ways.'
Restless the silkworm that writhes
When one puts it on the mulberry-bush;
Staunch I bore the lonely nights,
On the ground, under my cart.

I went to the eastern hills;
Long, long was it till I came back.
Now I am home from the east;
How the drizzling rain pours!
The fruit of the bryony
Has spread over the eaves of my house.
There are sowbugs in this room;
There were spiders' webs on the door.
In the paddock were the marks of wild deer,
The light of the watchman glimmers.
These are not things to be feared,
But rather to rejoice in.

I went to the eastern hills;
Long, long was it till I came back.
When I came from the east,
How the drizzling rain did pour!
A stork was crying on the ant-hill;
That means a wife sighing in her chamber.

Eastern Hills

東山,周公東征也。周公東征,三年而歸。勞歸士,大夫美之,故作是詩也。一章言其完也,二章言其思也,三章言其室家之望女也,四章樂男女之得及時也。君子之於人,序其情而閔其勞,所以說也。說以使民, 民忘其死,其唯東山乎!我徂東山,慆慆不歸。我來自東,零雨其濛。我東曰歸,我心西悲。制彼裳衣,勿士行枚。蜎蜎者蠋,烝在桑野。敦彼獨宿, 亦在車下。我徂東山,慆慆不歸。我來自東,零雨其濛。果贏之實,亦施于宇。伊威在室,蠨蛸在戶。町疃鹿場,熠燿宵行。不可畏也,伊可懷也。我徂東山,慆慆不歸。我來自東,零雨其濛。鸛鳴于垤,婦歎于室。洒掃穹窒,我征聿至。有敦瓜苦,烝在栗薪。自我不見,于今三年。 我徂東山,慆慆不歸。我來自東,零雨其濛。倉庚于飛,熠燿其羽。之子于歸,皇駁其馬,親結其縭,九十其儀。其新孔嘉,其舊如之何?
東山

Section 4 (8 columns in standard script, undated):

Broken were our axes
And chipped our hatchets.
But since the Duke of Chou came to the East
Throughout the kingdoms all is well.
He has shown compassion to us people,
He has greatly helped us.

Broken were our axes
And chipped our hoes.
But since the Duke of Chou came to the East
The whole land has been changed.
He has shown compassion to us people,
He has greatly blessed us.

Broken were our axes
And chipped our chisels.
But since the Duke of Chou came to the East
All the kingdoms are knit together.
He has shown compassion to us people,
He has been a great boon to us.

Broken Axes

破斧,美周公也。周大夫以惡四國焉,旣破我斧,又缺我斨。周公東征,四國是皇。哀我人斯,亦孔之將。既破我斧,又缺我錡。周公東征,四國是吪。哀我人斯,亦孔之嘉。既破我斧,又缺我銶。周公東征,四國是遒。哀我人斯,亦孔之休。
破斧

Section 5 (5 columns in standard script, undated):

How does one cut an axe-handle?
Without an axe it is impossible.
How does one take a wife?
Without a matchmaker she cannot be got.

Cut an axe-handle? Cut an axe-handle?
The pattern is not far to seek.
Here is a lady with whom I have had a love-meeting;
Here are my dishes all in a row.

Cutting an Ax Handle

伐柯,美周公也。周大夫刺朝廷之不知也。伐柯如何?匪斧不克。取妻如何?匪媒不得。伐柯伐柯,其則不遠。我覯之子,籩豆有踐。
伐柯

Section 6 (7 columns in standard script, undated):

'The fish in the minnow-net
Were rudd and bream.
The lover I am with
Has blazoned coat and broidered robe.'

'The wild-geese take wing; they make for the island.
The prince has gone off and we cannot find him.
He must be staying with you.

The wild-geese take wing; they make for the land.
The prince went off and does not come back.
He must be spending the night with you.'

'All because he has a broidered robe
Don't take my prince away from me,
Don't make my heart sad.'

Fishnets

九罭, 美周公也。周大夫刺朝廷之不知也。九罭之魚,鱒魴。我覯之子,袞衣繡裳。鴻飛遵渚,公歸無所,於女信處。鴻飛遵陸, 公歸不復,於女信宿。是以有袞衣兮,無以我公歸兮,無使我心悲兮。
九罭

Section 7 (6 columns in standard script, undated):

The wolf may catch in its own dewlap
Or trip up upon its tail.
But this nobleman, so tall and handsome,
In his red shoes stands sure.

The wolf may trip upon its tail
Or be caught in its dewlap.
But this nobleman, so tall and handsome--
In his fair fame is no flaw.

The Wolf

狼跋,美周公也。周公攝政,遠則四國流言,近則王不知,周大夫美其不失其聖也。狼跋其胡,載疐其尾。公孫碩膚,赤舃几几。狼疐其尾,載跋其胡。公孫碩膚,德音不瑕。
狼跋

豳國七篇

Collectors' seals

Li Tingxiang 李廷相 (1481–1544)
濮陽李廷相雙檜堂書畫私印

Liang Qingbiao 梁清標 (1620–1691)
蕉林梁氏書畫之印
蕉林鋻定
冶溪漁隱
棠村
蕉林居士
蕉林祕玩
觀其大略
蒼岩子

Zhao Jianbai 趙堅白 (active late 19th c.?)
趙氏金石
蘇黃米齋
蘇黃米祕藏書畫印
趙氏寳藏
渭秝審定
大清吳興趙氏
堅白墨緣

Pan Yanjun 潘彥均 (died 1950s)
曾藏潘彥均室
古人妙斫
禪餘清賞

Wang Jiqian 王季遷 (C. C. Wang, 1907–2003)
王季遷海外所見名跡
季遷心賞
王氏季遷曾觀
王季遷氏審定真跡
震澤王氏季遷收藏印
懷雲樓鑑賞書畫之記
王氏季遷珍藏之印

Unidentified
省安所藏
承謀私印
頻彥拜觀
氣清淨而無言

Illegible: 2

[1] Translations of poems from Arthur Waley, The Book of Songs, London, 1937, nos. 29, 72, 125, 159, 166, 231, and 232.
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