Retreats in the Spring Hills is datable stylistically to the early twelfth century, when artists began to experiment with archaic styles, including the "blue-and-green" landscape manner first made popular in the seventh century. In the twelfth-century revival, the flat blue-and-green color scheme was used to evoke feelings of an antique Golden Age. Artists adopted this style to create dreamlike visions of idyllic mountain retreats or Daoist paradises, in contrast to the naturalistic, predominantly monochromatic landscape depictions of the tenth and eleventh centuries.
Inscription: No artist’s inscription, signature, or seal
1. Zhao Yan 趙巖 (early 14th c.), 7 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 1 seal: