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元 張羽 松軒春靄圖 軸
Spring Clouds at the Pine Studio

Artist:
Zhang Yu (Chinese, 1333–1385)
Period:
Yuan dynasty (1271–1368)
Date:
dated 1366
Culture:
China
Medium:
Hanging scroll; ink and color on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 36 1/4 x 12 1/2 in. (92.1 x 31.8 cm) Overall with mounting: 79 1/2 x 18 1/2 in. (201.9 x 47 cm) Overall with knobs: 79 1/2 x 20 7/8 in. (201.9 x 53 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Gift of Douglas Dillon, 1980
Accession Number:
1980.426.3
Not on view
A poet, calligrapher, and painter known as one of the Ten Friends of the North Wall, Zhang Yu lived in the Suzhou area before the end of the Yuan dynasty. He accepted an appointment in 1371 to serve the Ming, but despite the loyal services he performed his earlier friendships made him suspect in the eyes of the Ming founder, Zhu Yuanzhang (r. 1368–98), and he was eventually driven to suicide. This landscape, painted two years before the founding of the Ming dynasty, shows the artist in the peaceful state of mind of the recluse. In late Yuan painting the depiction of a thatched studio by a stream became popular as a symbol of the scholar's condition—a life in reclusion. Zhang Yu's poetic sensibility is expressed through the subtle use of ink wash and pale colors and in the suggestion of dense moisture-laden clouds dissipating after a spring shower. The descriptive realism of the work relates the painter to the more conservative styles of the early Yuan period; the horizontal black and blue-green "Mi" dots may have been inspired by Spring Mountains and Pines (National Palace Museum, Taipei), attributed to Mi Fu (1052–1107).
Inscription: Artist’s inscription and signature (2 columns in seal script)

On the tenth day of the third lunar month in the bingwu year of the Zhizheng reign era [April 20, 1366] Zhang Yu painted Spring Clouds at the Pine Studio.

至正丙午三月十日張羽寫 《松軒春靄圖》。

Other inscriptions[1]

1. Wu Gui吳珪 (late 14th c.), 3 columns in standard script, undated; 2 seals:

Master Zhang [Yu], an elegant and tasteful man,
Painted wonders with delicate brushwork in his Pine Studio.
Poetry often evokes painting,
But how is it compared with the poetry evoked by painting?
Inscribed by Wu Gui [Seals]: Wu Gui, Zhixing

張子多風致,松軒小筆奇。
尋常詩裡畫,何似画中詩。
吳珪題。 [印]: 吳珪、志行

2. Qing emperor Qianlong清帝乾隆 (r. 1736–1795), 7 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1764; 2 seals:

Gorgeous gilt pavilions reach the clouds;
Spring pines outside the studio brim over with green.
The human world certainly has no realms like this;
It must be somewhere I visited in my precious life.
Inscribed by the Emperor on New Year’s Day of the jiashen year [February 2, 1764]. [Seals]: Ji xia yiqing, Qianlong chenhan

樓臺金碧望雲頭,
軒外春松翠欲流。
人世定知無此境,
前生遊處寫防邱。
甲申新春御題。 [印]: 幾暇怡情、乾隆宸翰


Collectors’ seals

Shen Zhou 沈周 (1427–1509)
Shen Zhou 沈周

Zhu Zhichi 朱之赤 (active mid-17th c.)
Zhu Zhichi jianshang 朱之赤鑑賞
Diyi xiyou 第一希有

Qing emperor Qianlong清帝乾隆 (r. 1736–1795)
Sanxi Tang jingjian xi 三希堂精鋻璽
Yi zisun 宜子孫
Shiqu baoji 石渠寳笈
Qianlong yulan zhi bao 乾隆御覽之寳
Qianlong jianshang 乾隆鑑賞

Chen Lüping 陳履平(active 1st half of the 18th c.)
Tan Zhai 坦齋
Dayao Chen shi 大姚陳氏


[1] Translations from Department records.
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