Art/ Collection/ Art Object

清 八大山人(朱耷) 魚石圖 軸
Fish and rocks

Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705)
Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
dated 1699
Hanging scroll; ink on paper
Image: 53 1/4 x 24 in. (135.3 x 61 cm) Overall with mounting: 92 1/2 x 31 1/2 in. (235 x 80 cm) Overall with knobs: 92 1/2 x 34 1/4 in. (235 x 87 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
Not on view
To disguise his identity, Zhu Da, a scion of the Ming imperial family, took refuge in a Buddhist temple after the Manchu conquest of 1644. About 1680 he renounced his status as a monk and began producing paintings and calligraphy in order to support himself. In 1684 he took the biehao (artistic name) Bada Shanren (Mountain Man of the Eight Greats). A staunch Ming loyalist throughout his life, Bada used painting as a means of protest. His is the poignant voice of the yimin, the leftover subjects of the fallen dynasty.

This painting is typical of the bold enigmatic images that Zhu Da produced during the last twenty years of his life. The seemingly innocuous subject, a garden pond framed by two ornamental rocks, becomes, in Zhu Da's rendition, profoundly unsettling. Were it not for seven tiny fish that swim beneath the two rock forms, transforming the blank paper into a body of water, the image would be unrecognizable. Six of the fish are shown in profile, but the seventh appears as if seen from above, leaving the viewer disoriented; the absence of a horizon line adds to the unsettling effect. Treating the image as a calligraphic design, Bada juxtaposes large and small, solid and void, and heavy and light, creating a tension between flat shapes and three-dimensional volumes that heightens the disturbing quality.
Inscription: Artist’s inscription and signature (2 columns in semi-cursive script)

Rou zhao[1]
Bada Shanren


Artist's seals

Kede shenxian 可得神仙
Bada Shanren 八大山人
Yaozhu 遥属

Other inscription on the painting

Luo Anxian 羅岸先 (19th c.), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1874; 1 seal:

此八大山人真本。甲戌端陽,禹麓羅三峰觀于植珊書屋。 [印]:岸先

Collectors' seals

Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983)

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)

[1] For the reading of the characters rou and zhao as a date and for the dating of Bada Shanren's work on the basis of his signature, see Wang Fangyu and Richard M. Barnhart, Master of the Lotus Garden: The Life and Art of Bada Shanren (1626-1705), exhibition catalogue, New Haven; London: Yale University Art Gallery, 1990, cat. no. 44, p. 168; see also Wang Fang-yü, "Bada Shanren's Methods of Inscribing Dates on His Works," translated by Arnold Chang, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 53 (1981), pp. 257-89
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Letters to Fang Shiguan

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: datable to ca. 1688–1705 Medium: Album of ten leaves; ink on patterned and plain paper Accession: 1982.458a–e On view in:Not on view

Birds in a lotus pond

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: ca. 1690 Medium: Handscroll; ink on satin Accession: 1989.363.135 On view in:Not on view