Art/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

清 八大山人(朱耷) 魚石圖 軸
Fish and rocks

Artist:
Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705)
Period:
Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
Date:
dated 1699
Culture:
China
Medium:
Hanging scroll; ink on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 53 1/4 x 24 in. (135.3 x 61 cm) Overall with mounting: 92 1/2 x 31 1/2 in. (235 x 80 cm) Overall with knobs: 92 1/2 x 34 1/4 in. (235 x 87 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
1989.363.137
Not on view
To disguise his identity, Zhu Da, a scion of the Ming imperial family, took refuge in a Buddhist temple after the Manchu conquest of 1644. About 1680 he renounced his status as a monk and began producing paintings and calligraphy in order to support himself. In 1684 he took the biehao (artistic name) Bada Shanren (Mountain Man of the Eight Greats). A staunch Ming loyalist throughout his life, Bada used painting as a means of protest. His is the poignant voice of the yimin, the leftover subjects of the fallen dynasty.

This painting is typical of the bold enigmatic images that Zhu Da produced during the last twenty years of his life. The seemingly innocuous subject, a garden pond framed by two ornamental rocks, becomes, in Zhu Da's rendition, profoundly unsettling. Were it not for seven tiny fish that swim beneath the two rock forms, transforming the blank paper into a body of water, the image would be unrecognizable. Six of the fish are shown in profile, but the seventh appears as if seen from above, leaving the viewer disoriented; the absence of a horizon line adds to the unsettling effect. Treating the image as a calligraphic design, Bada juxtaposes large and small, solid and void, and heavy and light, creating a tension between flat shapes and three-dimensional volumes that heightens the disturbing quality.
Inscription: Artist’s inscription and signature (2 columns in semi-cursive script)

Rou zhao[1]
Bada Shanren

柔兆
八大山人

Artist's seals

Kede shenxian 可得神仙
Bada Shanren 八大山人
Yaozhu 遥属

Other inscription on the painting

Luo Anxian 羅岸先 (19th c.), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1874; 1 seal:

此八大山人真本。甲戌端陽,禹麓羅三峰觀于植珊書屋。 [印]:岸先

Collectors' seals

Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983)
球圖寶骨肉情
別時容易
大風堂漸江髡殘雪个苦瓜墨緣

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
漢光閣主顧洛阜鑑藏中國古代書畫之章
顧洛阜
漢光閣

[1] For the reading of the characters rou and zhao as a date and for the dating of Bada Shanren's work on the basis of his signature, see Wang Fangyu and Richard M. Barnhart, Master of the Lotus Garden: The Life and Art of Bada Shanren (1626-1705), exhibition catalogue, New Haven; London: Yale University Art Gallery, 1990, cat. no. 44, p. 168; see also Wang Fang-yü, "Bada Shanren's Methods of Inscribing Dates on His Works," translated by Arnold Chang, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 53 (1981), pp. 257-89
London. Victoria and Albert Museum. "Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Collection of John M. Crawford, Jr.," June 17, 1965–August 1, 1965.

Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "The Work of Zhu Da," August 22, 1990–October 28, 1990.

New Haven. Yale University Art Gallery. "The Work of Zhu Da," January 18, 1991–March 24, 1991.

Zurich. Museum Rietberg. "The Mandate of Heaven: Emperors and Artists in China," April 2, 1996–July 7, 1996.

Museum für Asiatische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. "The Mandate of Heaven: Emperors and Artists in China," August 3, 1996–November 10, 1996.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Traditional Scholarly Values at the End of the Qing Dynasty: The Collection of Weng Tonghe (1830–1904)," June 30, 1998–January 3, 1999.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The World of Scholars' Rocks: Gardens, Studios, and Paintings," February 1, 2000–August 20, 2000.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "A Millennium of Chinese Painting: Masterpieces from the Permanent Collection," September 8, 2001–January 13, 2002.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "When the Manchus Ruled China: Painting under the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911)," February 2, 2002–August 18, 2002.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Chinese Painting, Masterpieces from the Permanent Collection," August 28, 2004–February 20, 2005.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Secular and Sacred: Scholars, Deities, and Immortals in Chinese Art," September 10, 2005–January 8, 2006.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Bridging East and West: The Chinese Diaspora and Lin Yutang," September 15, 2007–February 10, 2008.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Chinese Painting from the Metropolitan Collection I," October 31, 2015–October 11, 2016.

Related Objects

Two eagles

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: dated 1702 Medium: Hanging scroll; ink on paper Accession: 2014.721 On view in:Not on view

After Wang Xizhi's (303?-361?) "Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Gathering"

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: ca. 1694–96 Medium: Hanging scroll; ink on paper Accession: 1989.363.136 On view in:Not on view

Birds in a lotus pond

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: ca. 1690 Medium: Handscroll; ink on satin Accession: 1989.363.135 On view in:Not on view

Landscape album

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: dated 1699 Medium: Album of twelve leaves; ink and color on paper Accession: 1989.363.138a–l On view in:Not on view

Letter by Li Zhi

Artist: Bada Shanren (Zhu Da) (Chinese, 1626–1705) Date: dated 1702 Medium: Folding fan mounted as an album leaf; ink on paper Accession: 1989.363.139 On view in:Not on view