Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
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Saint Reparata before the Emperor Decius

Artist:
Bernardo Daddi (Italian, Florence (?) ca. 1290–1348 Florence)
Date:
ca. 1338–40
Medium:
Tempera on wood
Dimensions:
Overall 12 3/4 x 16 in. (32.4 x 40.6 cm); painted surface 10 1/2 x 13 7/8 in. (26.7 x 35.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Maitland F. Griggs Collection, Bequest of Maitland F. Griggs, 1943
Accession Number:
43.98.3
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 602
Martyred under Emperor Decius (ruled 249–51 A.D.), Saint Reparata was a patron saint of Florence, for whom its cathedral was named. This exquisitely painted panel is from the high altarpiece of the cathedral (the main panels are now in the Uffizi , Florence). Unusually, it had a double, or two-tiered, base (predella), the lower level of which showed eight scenes from the saint’s life. The Metropolitan owns two other badly damaged panels from the series. In this work Daddi transposed the grave manner of Giotto into a charming and rich narrative style.
The Artist: Bernardo Daddi was one of the most important painters of the early Trecento in Florence. He began his activity there in the 1320s during the height of Giotto’s reign over Florentine painting. While his works reveal the influence of Giotto’s recent stylistic innovations, Daddi distinguished himself from his contemporaries with lavish and richly decorated works reminiscent of those of the Sienese painters, such as Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti. It was this quality of Daddi’s paintings that led the art historian and connoisseur Bernard Berenson to describe him as "the most Sienese of all Florentines that ever painted." Daddi enjoyed success early in his career as a painter of small-scale, devotional works. By the 1330s, he must have maintained a sizeable workshop to meet the demand for smaller panels and altarpieces, best exemplified by his triptych of 1333 in the Bigallo in Florence. Daddi also executed several major works during his mature period. Following the death of Giotto in 1337, Daddi became the most active painter in Florence, receiving commissions for some of the largest and most important works of the 1330s and 1340s, including the large Madonna and Child with Angels (1346–47) for Orsanmichele and the so-called San Pancrazio altarpiece (1337–44), which went on to influence altarpiece painting for the remainder of the fourteenth century in Florence.

The Subject: The Met owns three panels relating to the life of the third-century Christian martyr, one of the patron saints of Florence and the ex-titular of the Florentine cathedral prior to its rebuilding in Gothic style (begun in 1296 and rededicated to the Virgin Mary as Santa Maria del Fiore). This panel depicts the first scene of the martyrdom of Saint Reparata. According to the Acta Sanctorum, Reparata was a young girl from Caesarea in Palestine and was martyred during the Roman Emperor Decius’s persecution of the Christians. She was brought before Decius and refused to sacrifice to the Roman pantheon, instead offering to burn herself as a sacrifice to Christ. Decius subjected her to a number of torments for her defiance, all of which she miraculously survived before being beheaded. Here she has her initial encounter with the emperor, who interrogates the young girl. The scene is enclosed within a delicate architectural structure and set against a highly decorated textile. Daddi condenses action and reaction into a single moment: Decius extends his arm as he condemns the girl, a gesture that is then answered by Reparata, who clutches her robe and touches her hand to her chest as she receives the emperor’s pronouncement. Daddi often employed this constellation of figures in his depictions of a saint’s martyrdom. Several of his predella panels and two frescoed scenes include a persecutor pointing at a martyr, who in turn responds with a subtle and expressive gesture. However, in no other example of this figural arrangement in Daddi’s oeuvre does the martyr’s reaction compare with the elegance and charm of Reparata’s response to Decius.

The Predella: Steinweg (1956) correctly identified the subject of the picture and further associated it with five other panels as the base, or predella, from what, she conjectured, was a highly important altarpiece for the old cathedral of Santa Reparata. The identification of the main panels and the reconstruction of its component parts took place in stages: Conti (1968) identified the main panels as those from an unusually large complex in the Uffizi that includes in one of its lateral panels an image of Saint Reparata (see Additional Images, fig. 1). This seven-part altarpiece (polyptych) was known to come from the church of San Pancrazio, where it was mentioned by Vasari (1568), who, however, erroneously ascribed it Agnolo Gaddi. From its documented presence in San Pancrazio, the altarpiece is usually referred to as the San Pancrazio Altarpiece. However, as Padoa Rizzo (1993) and Spilner (1997) independently proposed, the original destination of this altarpiece was the old cathedral, of which Saint Reparata was the titular saint. This is now firmly established (see Bergstein 1991 and Lavin 1999).

The Altarpiece: The San Pancrazio (or, rather, the Saint Reparata) Altarpiece was an exceptionally elaborate altarpiece, consisting of seven main panels, pinnacles, and a two-tiered predella depicting in the upper register, in eight panels, the life of the Virgin, and in the lower register, the story of the martyrdom of Saint Reparata. The details surrounding the commission and execution of the altarpiece were long uncertain. Vasari’s suggestion in the Lives of the Artists that the polyptych was made for the high altar of the church of San Pancrazio in Florence was commonly accepted and repeated throughout the critical literature. However, it is now established that the polyptych was commissioned for the high altar of the Florentine cathedral and was completed between 1337 and 1344. At the time, the new cathedral complex, with—as noted above—a dedication to Santa Maria del Fiore rather than Santa Reparata, was still under construction and so the altarpiece was placed on a provisional altar in the nave of the old cathedral, which was pulled down by 1375 to make way for the enlarged, Gothic structure we see today. The altarpiece was sold and transferred to the church of San Pancrazio, where in the mid-eighteenth century it was dismantled (see Poggi 1988 and Casu 2014). While the majority of the individual panels were placed in the Uffizi in the early nineteenth century, fifteen of the roughly fifty original panels of the polyptych (including the predella with scenes of Saint Reparata) had already been lost, sold, destroyed, or forgotten.

The Saint Reparata Predella: Six panels from the Saint Reparata series forming, as we now know, the lower register of the predella, are known today and, following their narrative sequence, are as follows: Saint Reparata before the Emperor Decius, Saint Reparata in Prison (private collection; see Additional Images, fig. 2), Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons (The Met, 41.190.15), Martyrdom of Saint Reparata in an Oven (Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, no. 878), Saint Reparata Being Prepared for Execution (The Met, 43.98.4), and Beheading of Saint Reparata (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Gal.-Nr. 3577). Until recently, scholars only knew the Beheading of Saint Reparata through two photographs, likely taken in the early twentieth century. Hipp (2010) first published the panel after it was identified in the Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, having arrived in Dresden in the 1940s among many works of art purchased or confiscated by the Nazis during World War II. It should be noted that although the six known panels were at first thought to constitute the complete series, Preiser (1973) and Boskovits (1989) opined that the predella was originally made up of eight panels, the two additional ones yet to be found. Given that the upper-register predella had eight scenes and that Vasari mentions a predella with eight stories of the Madonna and of Saint Reparata ["otto storie della Madonna e di Santa Reparata"], this must be correct. Boskovits cited iconographical reasons for a reconstruction with eight panels, suggesting that two additional scenes of the martyrdom described in the Acta Sanctorum might have been the subjects of the missing panels. However, the reconstruction of the predella offered by Boskovits is flawed on two counts: the position of the Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons and the potential subject of the sixth (missing) panel. A revised reconstruction of the eight-panel predella is proposed based on visual evidence and the hagiographic account of the martyrdom.

Although Boskovits maintained that the Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons was the third panel of the predella, it was most likely the fourth in the series. In the first reconstruction of the Saint Reparata panels, Steinweg suggested that the Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons and the Martyrdom of Saint Reparata in an Oven were the central panels of the predella (positioned in the lower tier beneath the main panel with the Madonna and Child), as they are the only two works in which the saint is presented frontally. This claim was overlooked by Boskovits, who, without explanation, shifted the panel away from the center of predella, assigning it the third position in his reconstruction. Nevertheless, the legend of Saint Reparata’s martyrdom seems to confirm that these two works were in fact the central panels of the predella (i.e., the fourth and fifth panels, respectively). The Acta Sanctorum relates that the first trial undergone by the saint, before being tortured with hot irons, was having boiling lead poured on her. This is one of the two major scenes from the legend that is not among the known panels of Daddi’s predella. Although Boskovits recognized that one of the missing panels must have portrayed Reparata being tortured with boiling lead, he assumed that this scene occupied the fourth position in the series, whereas according to the narrative sequence of the legend, it should instead be the third and Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons the fourth.

In addition to incorrectly ordering panels, Boskovits erroneously suggested that the sixth panel of the predella (the second missing work) depicted the beheading of Saint Reparata, a scene that is already among the known panels of the series. The only other major scene of the legend that is omitted from current reconstructions of the predella is Saint Reparata being stabbed with swords, an event that directly precedes the preparation of Saint Reparata for her execution. Although there is no precedent for a depiction of this scene, in a series of this complexity, devoted to a patron saint, it seems likely that Daddi depicted it. The panel would have occupied the sixth place in the sequence, the seventh showing the saint being prepared for martyrdom. Accordingly, the most up-to-date reconstruction of the predella would be as follows: Saint Reparata before the Emperor Decius (Scene I), Saint Reparata in Prison (Scene II); Missing, possibly Saint Reparata Tortured with Boiling Lead (Scene III), Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-Hot Irons (Scene IV), Martyrdom of Saint Reparata in an Oven (Scene V), Missing, possibly Saint Reparata Pierced with Swords (Scene VI), Saint Reparata Being Prepared for Execution (Scene VII), and Beheading of Saint Reparata (Scene VIII).

Conclusion: The San Pancrazio altarpiece represents the apex of Bernardo Daddi’s achievement and testifies to the artist’s unrivalled ability to produce cohesive compositions on a small scale. The altarpiece also stands as a testament to his lasting influence on Florentine painting. Daddi transformed the predella from a series of discrete scenes into a continuous narrative sequence, an innovation that greatly influenced the next several generations of Florentine painters. His other major innovation was the pairing of the life of the Virgin with the martyrdom of Saint Reparata in a double predella. The impact of this innovation is demonstrated by the fact that less than twenty years after the completion of the altarpiece, Giovanni da Milano was commissioned to include a double predella in his polyptych for the high altar of the church of Ognissanti in Florence. Paradoxically, it was this innovation by Daddi that long prevented scholars from associating the Saint Reparata predella with the San Pancrazio altarpiece.

The question of when the Saint Reparata predella panels were separated from the larger polyptych remains uncertain. None of the known documents relating to Daddi’s altarpiece, including the account of its disassembly, record the fate of these panels. And while scholars have tentatively linked the dispersal of the predella to the earliest known owners of panels from the predella, the English collectors and dealers William Young Ottley (who is known, for example, to have acquired parts of an altarpiece for Santa Croce by Ugolino da Siena) and George Augustus Wallis, it is unclear when or from whom the works were purchased. By the time the Saint Reparata before the Emperor Decius entered The Met’s collection, it was in a poor state of conservation. The panel was already described in the catalogue for the 1937 Mostra Giottesca in Florence as having a large horizontal crack and as having been "danneggiatissime da sgraffiature" (severely damaged with scratches). In spite of the damage and the subsequent restoration of the panel, it nonetheless clearly demonstrates Daddi’s enormous skill and exquisite handling. The brilliant colors, the intricate details of the hangings, and the dynamic choreography of the figures combine to produce a prime example of the masterful small-scale paintings for which Daddi is best known.

[Dominic Ferrante 2016]
cathedral of Santa Reparata, Florence (demolished 1375); cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence (until 1442; sold to Giovanni di Andrea Minerbetti); church of San Pancrazio, Florence (1442–at least 1568); William Young Ottley, London (until d. 1836); his brother, Warner Ottley, London (1836–47; sale, Foster's, London, June 30, 1847, no. 38, as "A pair—Relating to St. Catherine" [with "Saint Reparata in Prison"], by Spinello Aretino, for 5 gns to Fuller-Maitland); William Fuller Maitland, Stansted Hall, Stansted, Essex (1847–d. 1876; cat., 1872, p. 9, as Florentine School); his son, William Fuller Maitland, Stansted Hall (1876–1922; cat., 1893, p. 9, no. 20, as Florentine School; sale, Christie's, London, July 14, 1922, no. 52, as "Scenes from the Life of Santa Reparata" [with "Saint Reparata in Prison"], by Spinello Aretino, for £ 283.10 to Shoebridge); [Wildenstein, New York, until 1927; bought in England; sold to Griggs]; Maitland F. Griggs, New York (1927–d. 1943)
New York. Century Association. "Italian Primitive Paintings," February 15–March 12, 1930, no. 7 (lent by Maitland Fuller Griggs).

Florence. Palazzo degli Uffizi. "Mostra Giottesca," April–October 1937, no. 163 (as "S. Caterina davanti all'Imperatore," by Daddi, lent by the Griggs collection, New York) [1943 ed., no. 160].

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Florentine Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum," June 15–August 15, 1971, no catalogue.

Giorgio Vasari. Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori. Ed. Gaetano Milanesi. 1906 ed. Florence, 1568, vol 1, p. 639, mentions among the works of Agnolo Gaddi a painting for the high altar of San Brancazio [sic] with a predella composed of eight stories of the Madonna and Saint Reparata which may have included this work.

[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. London, 1854, vol. 3, p. 2, attributes it to Spinello Aretino, calling it the legend of Saint Catherine and mentioning a companion scene with the saint in prison.

Catalogue of Pictures at Stansted Hall. n.p., 1872, p. 9 [see Zeri and Gardner 1971], as Florentine School.

Catalogue of Pictures at Stansted Hall. n.p., 1893, p. 9, no. 20 [see Zeri and Gardner 1971], as Florentine School.

Richard Offner. Letter. October 13, 1926, attributes it to Bernardo Daddi.

Helen Comstock. "The Bernardo Daddis in the United States—Part II." International Studio 89 (March 1928), pp. 73–75, ill., accepts Offner's (1926) attribution to Daddi, and calls it "St. Barbara before the Proconsul"; considers it part of a predella that included panels now in The Met (43.98.4) and the Pechère collection, Brussels.

Richard Offner. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 3, section 3, New York, 1930, pp. 10, 62, 64, 66, 90, pls. XV (partial reconstruction), XV³, calls it "Saint Catherine before the Emperor"; attributes the predella to Bernardo Daddi and partially reconstructs it with the three works grouped by Comstock (1928).

Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. XXXVIII, connects it to the other panel from the Griggs collection (The Met, 43.98.4), referring to the two pictures as the Condemnation and Martyrdom of Saint Barbara; says the predella represents Daddi's final style, and dates it 1330s.

Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 167, as "Catherine before Judge" by Daddi.

Lionello Venturi. Italian Paintings in America. Vol. 1, Romanesque and Gothic. New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 47, accepts Offner's reconstruction (1930).

Richard Offner. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 4, section 3, New York, 1934, p. 165, observes similarities in the scene of Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-hot Irons then in the Blumenthal collection (41.190.15).

Seymour de Ricci. "Vers un corpus des peintures florentines." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 12 (1934), fig. 1, as Saint Catherine Before the Emperor, by Daddi.

Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 144.

Mostra Giottesca. Exh. cat., Palazzo degli Uffizi. Bergamo, 1937, p. 57, no. 163, pl. 97, call it Saint Catherine before the Emperor by Daddi, and cite Offner's reconstruction (1930).

Mario Salmi. "La mostra Giottesca." Emporium 86 (July 1937), p. 363, ill. p. 364, calls it Saint Catherine before the Emperor by Daddi.

Alfred M. Frankfurter. "The Maitland F. Griggs Collection." Art News 35 (May 1, 1937), p. 30, ill. p. 37 (color), calls it "St. Catherine before the Emperor," and places the predella in the last phase of Daddi's career.

Giulia Sinibaldi and Giulia Brunetti, ed. Pittura italiana del duecento e trecento: Catalogo della mostra giottesca di Firenze del 1937. Exh. cat., Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence, 1943, pp. 504–5, no. 160, ill., call it Saint Catherine before the Emperor, but note that some identify the saint as Barbara.

Francis Henry Taylor. "The Maitland F. Griggs Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 2 (January 1944), ill. p. 155, as "Saint Catherine before the Emperor Maxentius".

Klara Steinweg. "Contributo a due predelle di B. Daddi." Rivista d'arte 33 (1956), pp. 37–40, fig. 7 (reconstruction), attributes it to Daddi and identifies the saint as Reparata, citing the opinion of Ulrich Middeldorf; reconstructs the original predella to include, from left to right, this picture, Saint Reparata in Prison (Pechère collection, Brussels), Saint Reparata Tortured with Red-hot Irons (The Met, 41.190.15), Saint Reparata in a Furnace (Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne), Saint Reparata Being Prepared for Execution (The Met, 43.98.4), and the Beheading of Saint Reparata (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden; see Hipp 2010); suggests the predella belonged to a five-panel polyptych probably painted for the church of Santa Reparata in Florence, demolished in 1375.

Richard Offner. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 8, section 3, New York, 1958, pp. X, XIV–XVIII, XX, 29, 202, 223, pl. VI (reconstruction), accepts the reconstruction and provenance suggested by Steinweg (1956) and dates the predella about 1345.

Ugo Procacci. "Recensioni." Rivista d'arte 8 (1958), p. 135.

Giovanni Paccagnini in Encyclopedia of World Art. Vol. 4, New York, 1961, col. 225 [Italian ed., 1958, col. 183], calls it the story of Saint Catherine or Saint Barbara and places it in Daddi's later period.

E[llis]. K. Waterhouse. "Some Notes on William Young Ottley's Collection of Italian Primitives." Italian Studies Presented to E. R. Vincent. Cambridge, 1962, pp. 277, 279, no. 38, gives provenance information; mistakenly lists this picture as at Yale.

Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School. London, 1963, vol. 1, pp. 52, 56, lists it, along with the other two MMA scenes of Saint Reparata (41.190.15 and 43.98.4), as by Daddi, connecting them with the other panels of the predella.

Brigitte Klesse. Italienische Gemälde der Gotik und Frührenaissance im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. Cologne, 1964, pp. 7–8, follows Steinweg (1956) on the reconstruction and provenance of the predella.

Brigitte Klesse. Seidenstoffe in der italienischen Malerei des 14. Jahrhunderts. Bern, 1967, pp. 79, 81, 124, 356, 479, nos. 305, 513, fig. 95 (detail), dates it about 1345 on the basis of the textiles, and discusses the symbolism in the pattern of one of them .

Alessandro Conti. "Quadri alluvionati 1333, 1557, 1966 (II)." Paragone 19 (September 1968), pp. 4, 21 n. 7, identifies the predella as belonging to the altarpiece for the church of San Pancrazio, Florence, mentioned by Vasari (1568).

Ferdinando Bologna. Novità su Giotto. Turin, 1969, p. 15 n. 7, erroneously as still in the Griggs collection; attributes it to Daddi, accepting the connection with the panel now in the Pechère collection, Brussels; states that it is not certain that the saint is either Catherine of Alexandria or Barbara.

Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Florentine School. New York, 1971, pp. 26–27, 29, ill., identify the saint as Reparata; attribute the predella to Daddi, placing it in his late period, about the mid-1340s, and state that it belonged to an unidentified altarpiece.

Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 62, 446, 608.

Arno Preiser. Das Entstehen und die Entwicklung der Predella in der italienischen Malerei. PhD diss., Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg. Hildesheim, 1973, pp. 325–26, accepts Conti's (1968) identification of the predella and suggests that it is missing two panels that probably showed scenes from the life of Saint Reparata, rather than her martyrdom.

Brigitte Klesse. Kataloge des Wallraf-Richartz-Museums. Vol. 6, Katalog der italienischen, französischen und spanischen Gemälde bis 1800 im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. Cologne, 1973, pp. 43–44, under no. 878.

Miklós Boskovits in Richard Offner et al. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 9, section 3, The Fourteenth Century: The Painters of the Miniaturist Tendency. new ed. Florence, 1984, p. 74, cites Conti 1968.

Wolfgang Fritz Volbach. Catalogo della Pinacoteca Vaticana. Vol. 2, Il Trecento: Firenze e Siena. Vatican City, 1987, p. 28, erroneously as in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.

Il Duomo di Firenze: documenti sulla decorazione della chiesa e del campanile tratti dall'archivio dell'opera. Ed. Giovanni Poggi. Florence, 1988, vol. 2, p. 141, nos. 2125–26, publishes two documents of August 25, 1442, detailing the sale of the altarpiece with its predella to Giovanni di Andrea Minerbetti for 200 lire.

Miklós Boskovits in Richard Offner et al. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 3, section 3, The Fourteenth Century: The Works of Bernardo Daddi. new ed. Florence, 1989, pp. 22, 263, 277, 280, 283, 286 n. 1, p. 386, pls. XIV (hypothetical reconstruction of polyptych), XV (reconstruction of predella), XV¹–XV² (detail), considers it likely that the predella originally belonged to the polyptych painted by Daddi for the church of San Pancrazio, Florence (later dismembered, now in the Galleria Degli Uffizi), and believes it must have included two more scenes now missing.

Miklós Boskovits in Richard Offner et al. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Vol. 4, section 3, The Fourteenth Century: Bernardo Daddi, His Shop and Following. new ed. Florence, 1991, pp. 332, 411, 463, 510.

Mary Bergstein. "Marian Politics in Quattrocento Florence: The Renewed Dedication of Santa Maria del Fiore in 1412." Renaissance Quarterly 44 (Winter 1991), pp. 690–91, notes that Spilner's study "currently in preparation" (see Spilner 1997) will propose that the San Pancrazio altarpiece was originally made for the high altar of the Florence cathedral.

Anna Padoa Rizzo. "Bernardo di Stefano Rosselli, il 'polittico Rucellai' e il polittico di San Pancrazio di Bernardo Daddi." Studi di storia dell'arte 4 (1993), p. 214, argues that the polyptych recorded by Vasari (1568) was painted by Daddi for the high altar of the cathedral of Florence, and later moved to the church of San Prancrazio by 1568.

Enrica Neri Lusanna in The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 8, New York, 1996, p. 443, mentions the predella as one of two that Vasari assigned to an altarpiece painted by Daddi for Florence Cathedral and later in the church of San Pancrazio.

Paula Lois Spilner. The Case for the Missing Maestà: New Documents and a Proposal for the High Altar of Florence Cathedral. April 1997 [see Bergstein 1991, Lavin 1999, Strehlke 2004, and Strehlke 2015], demonstrates that the San Pancrazio altarpiece was commissioned and executed between 1337 and 1344 for the high altar of the cathedral of Florence.

Mojmír S. Frinta. "Part I: Catalogue Raisonné of All Punch Shapes." Punched Decoration on Late Medieval Panel and Miniature Painting. Prague, 1998, p. 445, classifies a punch mark appearing in this painting.

Irving Lavin. Santa Maria del Fiore: il Duomo di Firenze e la Vergine incinta. Rome, 1999, pp. 40–41, cites Spilner's (1997) unpublished study.

Miklós Boskovits et al., ed. "The Fourteenth Century: Bernardo Daddi and His Circle." A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. By Richard Offner. Vol. 5, section 3, new ed. Florence, 2001, p. 572, catalogue a panel depicting Saint James Major from the upper register of the San Pancrazio altarpiece; do not include the Saint Reparata panels in the reconstruction of the work (add. pl. V; see Boskovits 1989, pl. XIV).

Carl Brandon Strehlke. Italian Paintings 1250–1450 in the John G. Johnson Collection and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2004, pp. 96, 219, 222 n. 8, accepts Spilner's (1997) evidence showing that the San Pancrazio altarpiece was originally in the Florence cathedral.

Lisa Monnas. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300–1550. New Haven, 2008, pp. 80, 82–83, 349 nn. 63–64, 70.

Elisabeth Hipp. "Eine 'verschollene' Florentiner Predellentafel in Dresden." Dresdener Kunstblätter 54, no. 1 (2010), pp. 8–13, 15 n. 25, fig. 4, identifies the panel depicting the beheading of Saint Reparata in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden.

Stefano G. Casu. The Pittas Collection: Early Italian Paintings (1200–1530). Florence, 2011, pp. 42, 44, fig. 8.2 (altarpiece reconstruction), discusses the history of the San Pancrazio altarpiece in the entry for a panel depicting Christ Blessing which he proposes as the cimasa, or crown, of the polyptych.

Victor M. Schmidt in Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance: Painting and Illumination, 1300–1350. Ed. Christine Sciacca. Exh. cat., J. Paul Getty Museum. Los Angeles, 2012, pp. 88, 91 n. 22.

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. Ed. Colum P. Hourihane. Oxford, 2012, vol. 2, p. 251, ill. p. 250.

Stefano G. Casu in La fortuna dei primitivi: tesori d'arte dalle collezioni italiane fra Sette e Ottocento. Ed. Angelo Tartuferi and Gianluca Tormen. Exh. cat., Galleria dell'Accademia. Florence, 2014, pp. 320, 322, 324, fig. 1 (altarpiece reconstruction), under no. 52a–c.

Andreas Henning in An der Wiege der Kunst: Italienische Zeichnungen und Gemälde von Giotto bis Botticelli. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden. Berlin, 2014, p. 52, under no. 2, discusses the predella in the entry for the Dresden "Beheading of Saint Reparata".

Carl Brandon Strehlke in Carl Brandon Strehlke and Machtelt Brüggen Israëls. The Bernard and Mary Berenson Collection of European Paintings at I Tatti. Florence, 2015, pp. 223–24 n. 1.



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