?Luigi Bonomi, Milan; ?Signora Cereda-Rovelli, Milan (by 1888); the Bonomi-Cereda family, Milan (by 1891–94; sold for $2,567 to Davis); Theodore M. Davis, Newport, R.I. (1894–d. 1915; his estate, on loan to the MMA, 1915–30)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "[no title]," 1894, no. 263 (as "The Warrior," lent by Theo. M. Davis).
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "[title not known]," Winter 1903–4, no catalogue? (lent by Theodore Davis) [see Chalfin 1903].
Wooster, Ohio. Josephine Long Wishart Museum of Art. "Exhibition of Paintings of French, Italian, Dutch, Flemish and German Masters, lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 20–December 15, 1944, unnumbered cat. (p. 8).
Richmond. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. "[title not known]," September 10–October 12, 1947, no catalogue?
Richmond. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. "[title not known]," January 21–April 21, 1948, no catalogue?
Scottsdale. Arizona Art Association. "Paintings from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," February 22–March 21, 1954, no catalogue.
New Paltz, N.Y. State Teachers College. "[exhibition for a conference of art teachers]," April 19–24, 1954, no catalogue?
Southampton, N.Y. Parrish Art Museum. "Paintings from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," July 22–August 18, 1954, unnumbered cat. (as "Portrait of a German Warrior," by Nicolas Neufchatel).
Poughkeepsie. Vassar College Art Gallery. "Humanism North and South," February 29–March 18, 1956, no catalogue?
Robert Stiassny. "Altdeutsche und altniederländer in oberitalienischen Sammlungen." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 11 (1888), p. 395, as in the Cereda-Rovelli collection; attributes it to Moroni.
Carl von Lützow. "Giovanni Battista Moroni." Graphischen Künste 14 (1891), p. 23, as in the Cereda-Bonomi collection, Milan; calls it an early work; identifies the sitter as a German mercenary captain.
B[ernard]. Berenson. "Les peintures italiennes de New-York et de Boston." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 15 (March 1896), pp. 201–2, dates it to Moroni's middle period.
Gustavo Frizzoni. Arte e storia 16 (1897), p. 18 [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1986].
Jacob Burckhardt. Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte von Italien. Basel, 1898, p. 294 [2nd ed., Berlin, 1911, p. 337].
Giulio Carotti. "R. Galleria di Brera in Milano." Gallerie nazionali italiane 4 (1899), pp. 298–99, erroneously states that it was once in the collection of Teodoro Lechi, Brescia [see Ref. Gregori 1979 (cat. rais.)].
P. C[halfin]. "Pictures in the Fourth Gallery." Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin 1 (November 1903), p. 30.
P. Chalfin. Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Twenty-eighth Annual Report for the Year 1903. Cambridge, Mass., 1904, p. 105 [see Ref. Gregori 1979 (cat. rais.)].
Bernhard Berenson. North Italian Painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1907, p. 272, lists it as "Portrait of a Nobleman".
Joseph Breck. "Dipinti italiani nella raccolta del Signor Teodoro Davis." Rassegna d'arte 11 (July 1911), p. 113, ill.
E. Fornoni. Note biografiche su pittori bergamaschi. [ca. 1915–22], c. 48 [Curia Vescovile, Bergamo; see Ref. Gregori 1979 (cat. rais.)].
Salomon Reinach. Répertoire de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280–1580). Vol. 4, Paris, 1918, p. 270, no. 3, ill. (engraving).
Heinrich Merten. "Giovanni Battista Moroni: Des Meisters Gemälde und Zeichnungen." PhD diss., Philipps Universität, Marburg, 1928, p. 34, no. 62, dates it about 1555.
Adolfo Venturi. Storia dell'arte italiana. Vol. 9, part 4, La pittura del Cinquecento. Milan, 1929, p. 277 n. 1.
Bryson Burroughs. "The Theodore M. Davis Bequest: The Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26, section 2 (March 1931), pp. 14–16.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 382.
Gertrud Lendorff. Giovanni Battista Moroni, der Porträtmaler von Bergamo. Winterthur, Switzerland, 1933, pp. 25, 27, 59, 98, no. 21, calls it a portrait of a German officer and dates it 1555–59.
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 328.
Gertrude Lendorff inGiovanni Battista Moroni, il ritrattista bergamasco. Bergamo, 1939, pp. 65, 70, 127, 169, no. 21 [text similar to Ref. Lendorff 1933].
Davide Cugini. Moroni pittore. Bergamo, 1939, p. 318, lists it as a portrait of a German officer.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, p. 164, ill., as "Portrait of a German Warrior".
Millia Davenport. The Book of Costume. New York, 1948, vol. 1, p. 410, no. 1094, ill. (cropped).
Federico Zeri. Letter to Elizabeth Gardner. October 18, 1952, thinks "that the attribution to a German artist working in Venice, or influenced by the Italian Cinquecento, is correct".
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. London, 1968, vol. 1, p. 287.
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 145, 521, 607, mistakenly list it tentatively as dated 1518.
D. Spinelli. "Trento lo scoprì prima di Bergamo." Eco di Bergamo (February 15, 1978), p. 7 [see Ref. Gregori 1979 (cat. rais.)].
Mina Gregori. Giovan Battista Moroni: Tutte le opere. Bergamo, 1979, pp. 99, 289, no. 161, ill. p. 328, dates it about 1554; suggests that the sitter may be Galeazzo Settala and that the picture may be identical with one cited in 1680 as by Titian; rejects Carotti's [see Ref. 1899] identification of the picture with one once owned by Teodoro Lechi.
Mina Gregori inGiovan Battista Moroni. Exh. cat., Palazzo della Ragione. Bergamo, 1979, pp. 28, 48, dates it 1551–52.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, North Italian School. New York, 1986, pp. 47–48, pl. 76, date it to the early 1550s; reject the identification of the sitter as Galeazzo Settala [see Ref. Gregori 1979 (cat. rais.)]; discuss the state of preservation.