This is one of a set of six paintings from a room in the Château de Bagatelle, on the outskirts of Paris which belonged to the comte d'Artois, brother of Louis XVI. Robert often incorporated the antique ruins and monuments he had studied in Italy, in the present case the temple of Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, near Naples. The statues of Mercury and Venus are based on works by the French sculptor Pigalle while the landscape is imaginary.
In 1777, Charles Philippe, comte d’Artois (1757–1836), the youngest brother of Louis XVI who became Charles X of France, made a wager with Marie Antoinette. He bet that he could cause to be built a small château, or folie, to be called Bagatelle, while the court was absent from Versailles at Fontainebleau. His architect, François Joseph Belanger (1744–1818), reportedly brought eight hundred workers to the task. The comte d’Artois was the eventual winner, as the new Bagatelle was completed as required, between September 21 and November 26, 1777. Robert was commissioned to decorate the bathing room and Antoine Callet (1741–1823) was assigned the boudoir, on the opposite side. While Callet’s paintings have disappeared, Robert’s were given to The Met by financier J. Pierpont Morgan.
Robert’s paintings were apparently conceived as three pairs of varying widths. Of the six, Wandering Minstrels was exhibited at the Salon of 1779, while The Swing is signed, and The Mouth of a Cave is signed by the artist and dated 1784. Each of the three belongs to a different pair, and though the arrangement cannot be determined with certainty, it seems likely that the narrowest were on the fireplace wall while the widest flanked the window on the garden. In 1784, Robert was employed to repaint (refaire) the two canvases on the fireplace wall that had been damaged by dampness. It is possible but not certain that The Fountain, which is poorly preserved, was "redone" at the time, while The Mouth of a Cave, which is in good state, was supplied as a replacement, as Joseph Baillio suggested.
The pictures remained at Bagatelle until 1808, when they were sold at auction. It is unlikely that, as has been alleged, they belonged to the empress Josephine: there is no record of them at Malmaison and in any event she died in 1814. In 1911, it was announced that they had been rediscovered by the then curator of the Bois de Boulogne. For some time previously, they had been in the collection of the comtes de Flaux.
The woodland temple with a pool and fountains, visitors and bathers, is a splendid invention. When painting it, Robert seems to have referred to his own drawings for both the building and the sculpture. Possible sources of inspiration are the tempietto of Donato Bramante (1444–1514) at San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, the ancient temple at Tivoli, and what was then called the Temple of Serapis, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. The ruined structure, furnished with a statue based on an ancient model, is flanked by figures of Venus and Mercury after Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (1714–1785). Pots and boxes of flowers suggest a private contemporary garden.
At the top of the steps is a visitor attired for the street in modern dress; at the bottom of the same stairs, a goddess-like, largely nude blond modeled on Boucher and more distantly on Watteau dons a chemise. Two unselfconscious brunettes play in shallow water, although in principle nude females would be admissible here only in the guise of statuary. One of their fashionable pink shoe lies at the edge of the pool. Since the picture was designed for the bathing room of a folly built on the whim of a prince whose joint aims were securing privacy and advertising luxury, this is perhaps not surprising. Visitors were sometimes admitted by ticket to Bagatelle, which was occupied infrequently and for the briefest of intervals by its owner.
[Katharine Baetjer 2011]
Charles Philippe, comte d'Artois, château de Bagatelle, near Paris (until 1789); at Bagatelle (abandoned and then nationalized and sold, 1789–96); Lieuthraud, or Leuthraud, called marquis de Beauregard, Bagatelle (1796–97); André Lhéritier and the Société des entrepreneurs de fêtes (1797–1806); at Bagatelle (purchased by Napoleon's Administration des Domaines, 1806); sale, Hôtel de Bullion, Paris, Clisorius and Masson jeune, April 4ff., 1808, no. 151, as "Six Tableaux sous ce numéro; ils représentent des monuments d'Italie et amusements champêtres. Ils ont étés peints pour le ci-devant comte d'Artois, à Bagatelle. Toile."; the lot was in two parts, the first went for Fr 381, the second for Fr 240, both to Brunot; ?[Jacques Nicolas Brunot, from 1808]; Pierre Justin Armand Verdier, comte de Flaux, château de Flaux, near Uzès (until d. 1883); Édouard Henri Roger Verdier, comte de Flaux, château de Flaux (1883–d. 1898); Clémence Pascal Verdier, comtesse douairière de Flaux, château de Flaux (1898–d. 1908; estate under arbitration, 1908–10); Eliane Berger, Roger de Flaux's daughter (1910–11; offered for sale to MMA and J. Pierpont Morgan through Maurice de Verneuil); J. Pierpont Morgan, New York (1911–d. 1913; his estate, 1913–17; on loan to MMA from May 1912)
Paris. Thos. Agnew & Sons. "Hubert Robert (1733–1808)," March 12–30, 1912, one of nos. 1–8 (as "Panneaux Décoratifs pour un salon, provenant de la collection de Madame de Flaux," lent by J. Pierpont Morgan).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Nudes in Landscapes: Four Centuries of a Tradition," May 18–August 5, 1973, no catalogue.
Springfield, Mo. Springfield Art Museum. "Masterpiece of the Month," November 15, 1975–March 15, 1976, no catalogue.
M. [Luc-Vincent] Thiéry. Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris. Paris, 1787, vol. 1, pp. 28–29, describes the château de Bagatelle, stating that the bathing room, to the left of the "grand sallon," was ornamented with mirrors and with six charming pictures by Robert, while the boudoir, opposite, was decorated with mirrors and six pictures by Callet.
Friedrich Gilly. Description de Bagatelle. 1797 [published by Edgar Wedepohl in L'Oeil, no. 126, 1965, p. 22], mentions the Robert paintings in the "petit cabinet" to the left.
Annonces, affiches et avis divers 93 (April 2, 1808), p. 1478 [see Ref. Baillio 1995], preview the sale of "six tableaux de place, peints par Hubert Robert représentant des Monuments d'Italie".
Charles Yriarte. "Mémoires de Bagatelle, I." La revue de Paris 4 (July–August 1903), pp. 21, 33, states that Robert was paid 500 livres for each; mentions that by 1784 the pictures, suffering from dampness, were restored by the artist for 500 livres; notes that they appear in the year V [1796–97] inventory, described as damaged by humidity.
Henri-Gaston Duchesne. Le château de Bagatelle (1715–1908). Paris, 1909, pp. 142, 155, 160, cites a document of May 18, 1784, in which the paintings to the right and left of the fireplace are mentioned as requiring restoration; notes that the six damaged paintings were in situ when Bagatelle was leased to entrepreneurs in the year V [1796–97].
[Jean Claude Nicolas Forestier]. Bagatelle et ses jardins. Paris, 1910, pp. 34–35, ill. opp. p. 17, as in the collection of Mme la Comtesse de F . .
"Nouvelles." Chronique des arts et de la curiosité, supplément à la Gazette des beaux-arts no. 31 (October 7, 1911), p. 242, announces the rediscovery of the six panels by M. Forestier, conservator of the Bois de Boulogne; notes that paintings are signed and dated 1777 and 1784; states that they were brought to Malmaison and later given by Empress Josephine to her physician, who left them to his family.
D. F[riedley]. "Decorative Panels by Hubert Robert." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 7 (July 1912), pp. 130–31, announces J. Pierpont Morgan's loan.
J[ean]. C[laude]. N[icolas]. Forestier Librairie agricole de la maison rustique. Bagatelle et ses jardins. Paris, [1922–23?], pp. 43–44, ill. between pp. 24 and 25.
P[reston]. R[emington]. "Six Paintings by Hubert Robert." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 19 (January 1924), pp. 9–10, dates them 1777.
Jean Stern. A l'ombre de Sophie Arnould: Francois-Joseph Belanger. Paris, 1930, vol. 1, p. 70.
Georges Pascal. Histoire du château de Bagatelle. Paris, 1938, p. 34, notes that copies have replaced the Robert originals.
Louis Hautecœur. Histoire de l'architecture classique en France. Vol. 4, Seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle: Le style Louis XVI, 1750–1792. Paris, 1952, p. 493.
Robert Joffet. Bagatelle: Histoire et guide. Paris, 1954, pp. 16, 27–28.
Charles Sterling. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of French Paintings. Vol. 1, XV–XVIII Centuries. Cambridge, Mass., 1955, pp. 163–64, 166–67, ill., accepts the tradition that the paintings were at Malmaison; notes that the round building was done from a drawing, now in Besançon, of the temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli; and adds that the statue at right is the Mercury by Pigalle.
Ferdinand Boyer. "Jean-Joseph de Laborde protecteur de F.-X. Fabre et sa collection confisquée en 1794." Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français, année 1954, (1955), p. 221 n. 1.
Ruth T. Costantino. How to Know French Antiques. New York, 1961, ill. between pp. 128 and 129.
Barbara Scott. "Bagatelle: Folie of the comte d'Artois." Apollo (June 1972), p. 481, ill.
Béatrice de Andia et al. De Bagatelle à Monceau, 1778-1978: Les folies au XVIIIe siècle à Paris. Exh. cat., Musée Carnavalet. Paris, 1978–79, p. 16, accepts the tradition that the six paintings were once at the Malmaison.
Gérard Hubert. Letter to Dean Walker. April 28, 1980, says there is no trace of the six panels having ever been in Josephine's collection; identifies her physician as Horeau; concludes that if the paintings belonged to her they were in her possession for only a short time.
Jean de Cayeux. "Jeux d'eau pour une salle de bains." L'Objet d'art 8 (June 1988), pp. 62–65, 68, ill. (color, overall and detail), finds the MMA title misleading and suggests instead the title "Le temple de l'Amitié," observing that the sculpture of Mercury is a symbol of friendship; suggests that this painting and "Wandering Minstrels" were installed at Bagatelle shortly before or shortly after the 1779 Salon, and that the narrower panels were not completed until 1784.
Annie Jacques and Jean-Pierre Mouilleseaux inLa Folie d'Artois. Exh. cat., château de Bagatelle, Paris. n.p., , pp. 42–43, fig. 24 (color).
Jean de Cayeux with the collaboration of Catherine Boulot. Hubert Robert. Paris, 1989, p. 120.
Paul Bernard Wilson. "Profiles in Royalty: Hubert Robert's 'The Mouth of a Cave' and a Concealed Iconography of Louis XVI." Album Amicorum Kenneth C. Lindsay: Essays on Art and Literature. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein and George D. McKee. Binghamton, 1990, pp. 183–84.
Joseph Baillio. "Hubert Robert's Decorations for the Château de Bagatelle." Metropolitan Museum Journal 27 (1992), pp. 149, 156–57, 161, 164, 171–73, 176–78, 181 nn. 25–26, p. 182 nn. 51, 53–54, figs. 15, 17, 18, 20, 22 (overall and details), with the exception of "The Mouth of a Cave," dates the series 1777–79; observes that Robert took the figure of the woman seen from behind, with her knees protruding from the water, from Balechou's 1757 print (fig. 21) after Joseph Vernet's "Bathers," and that the female bather removing her stockings was taken from Boucher's "Le Fleuve Scamandre," which he knew from Nicolas de Larmessin's 1742 print of the composition (fig. 23).
Joseph Baillio. "Addendum to 'Hubert Robert's Decorations for the Château de Bagatelle'." Metropolitan Museum Journal 30 (1995), p. 103, notes that these paintings and Callet's were sold in Paris on April 4, 1808, to Brunot.
Paula Rea Radisich. Hubert Robert: Painted Spaces of the Enlightenment. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 12–13, 78–96, 110–11, 118–19, 171–72 nn. 25, 29, p. 173 n. 35, p. 174 n. 42, p. 176 n. 56, fig. 45.
Jean Strouse. Morgan: American Financier. New York, 1999, p. 559, briefly mentions our Bagatelle paintings (17.190.25–30).
Katie Scott. "Book Reviews. Hubert Robert: Painted Spaces of the Enlightenment." Burlington Magazine 141 (November 1999), p. 690.
Jean Strouse. "J. Pierpont Morgan, Financier and Collector." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 57 (Winter 2000), pp. 26–28, ill. (color).
Catherine Voiriot inHubert Robert, 1733–1808: Un peintre visionnaire. Ed. Guillaume Faroult and Catherine Voiriot. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 2016, p. 461.
Margaret Morgan Grasselli inHubert Robert. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2016, p. 227, fig. 1 (color), under no. 53.
An anonymous copy of this painting, measuring 173 x 122 cm appeared in two recent New York auctions: Parke-Bernet, January 22, 1976, lot 199, and Sotheby's, May 30, 1979, lot 60. A painting by Robert exhibited at the Walpole Gallery, London, "Treasures of Italian Art," 1988, no. 26, as Capriccio – A Garden Landscape with the Temple of the Sibyl (128 x 95 in.) is similar in composition and must also derive from the artist's drawing of the temple of Serapis.