Théodore Rousseau (French, Paris 1812–1867 Barbizon)
Oil on wood
25 1/4 x 39 in. (64.1 x 99.1 cm)
Bequest of Collis P. Huntington, 1900
Not on view
Approximately three miles separate the village of Barbizon, where Rousseau settled in 1836, and this site at the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau. Romantic artists had long been attracted by Arbonne’s rocky outcroppings, boulders, and strange, twisted trees. This painting, with its heightened color, strong contrasts of hue, and varied textures, is characteristic of forest sunsets painted during the final decade of Rousseau’s career. Throughout the composition the wood panel shows through the paint layer, its warm brown surface serving as a midtone.
the artist, Barbizon (until d. 1867; his estate sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, April 27–May 2, 1868, probably no. 47, "Hauteurs du camp d'Arbonne [Fontainebleau] – Esquisse," 1862–64, as 64 x 106 cm, for 530 Fr to Sensier); Alfred Sensier, Paris (1868–72; sold May 17 for Fr 4,000 to Durand-Ruel]; [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1872–at least 1874; stock no. 1521]; ?Fremyn, Paris (until 1876; his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, May 10, 1876, no. 53, as "Paysage. Soleil couchant"); Robert Graves, Brooklyn (until d. 1886; his estate sale, American Art Association, New York, February 11, 1887, no. 166, as "Sunset at D'Arbonne," for $5,100 to Huntington); Collis P. Huntington, New York (1887–d. 1900; his bequest to MMA with life interest to his widow, Arabella D. Huntington, later [from 1913] Mrs. Henry E. Huntington, 1900–d. 1924; life interest to their son, Archer Milton Huntington, 1924–terminated in 1925)
New York. Union League Club. Winter 1887, no catalogue [see Montezuma 1888].
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Landscape Paintings," May 14–September 30, 1934, no. 39 (as "Sunset; D'Arbonne").
Paris. Palais National des Arts. "Chefs d'œuvre de l'art français," July–September 1937, no. 407 (as "Paysage d'Arbonne. Soleil couchant").
Newark Museum. "19th-Century French and American Paintings from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," April 9–May 15, 1946, no. 25 (as "Sunset: D'Arbonne").
Winnipeg Art Gallery. "French Pre-Impressionist Painters of the Nineteenth Century," April 10–May 9, 1954, no. 58 (as "Sunset, d'Arbonne").
San Francisco. California Palace of the Legion of Honor. "Barbizon Revisited," September 27–November 4, 1962, no. 100 (as "Sunset near Arbonne").
Toledo Museum of Art. "Barbizon Revisited," November 20–December 27, 1962, no. 100.
Cleveland Museum of Art. "Barbizon Revisited," January 15–February 24, 1963, no. 100.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Barbizon Revisited," March 14–April 28, 1963, no. 100.
New York. Wildenstein. "Romantics and Realists," April 7–May 7, 1966, no. 67.
Paris. Musée du Louvre. "Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867," November 29, 1967–February 12, 1968, no. 54.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Barbizon: French Landscapes of the Nineteenth Century," February 4–May 10, 1992, no catalogue.
Haus der Kunst München. "Corot, Courbet und die Maler von Barbizon: 'Les amis de la nature'," February 4–April 21, 1996, no. B 140 (as "Sonnenuntergang über der Heide von Arbonne").
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons. "L'école de Barbizon: Peindre en plein air avant l'impressionnisme," June 22–September 9, 2002, no. 101 (as "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne").
Armand Silvestre. Galerie Durand-Ruel, recueil d'estampes, gravées à l'eau-forte. Paris, 1873, pl. CCX (engraving by Greux), as "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne," 63 x 99 cm.
Walter Rowlands. "Art Sales in America." Art Journal, n.s., (1887), p. 294, notes that it brought [the American equivalent of] £1,020 at the Graves sale in 1887.
"The Graves Gallery: Some Notable Pictures Belonging to the Estate of a Brooklyn Collector." Brooklyn Eagle (February 2, 1887), p. 2, states that Graves paid $30,000 for this painting.
Montezuma [Montague Marks]. "My Note Book." Art Amateur 16 (March 1887), p. 74.
Montezuma [Montague Marks]. "My Note Book." Art Amateur 19 (September 1888), p. 75, asserts that this picture was reworked by another hand after being sold by Durand-Ruel, who "saw it last winter at the Union League Club"; states that the correct title is "Soleil Couchant (lande d'Arbonne)".
Bryson Burroughs. "The Collis P. Huntington Collection Comes to the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (June 1925), p. 142.
Charles Sterling inChefs d'œuvre de l'art français. Exh. cat., Palais National des Arts. Paris, 1937, p. 197, no. 407.
Robert L. Herbert. Barbizon Revisited. Exh. cat., California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco. Boston, 1962, pp. 48, 177, no. 100, ill. p. 59 (color), states that its present surface "dates from about 1865, but it was probably worked on over a period of many years" and that it was included in the artist's estate sale.
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 2, XIX Century. New York, 1966, pp. 83–84, ill., date it about 1855; note that a recent cleaning has restored "its original appearance of a broad sketch".
Hélène Toussaint inThéodore Rousseau, 1812–1867. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 1967, pp. 80–81, no. 54, ill., calls it "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne" and states that it was probably finished about 1863; discusses the influence of Japanese art in this picture.
Jean Bouret. L'École de Barbizon et le paysage français au XIXe siècle. Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1972, p. 271, ill. p. 213, dates it about 1863.
John Minor Wisdom Jr. inThe Forest of Fontainbleau [sic], Refuge of Reality: French Landscape 1800 to 1870. Exh. cat., Shepherd Gallery. New York, 1972, unpaginated.
Hélène Toussaint inHommage à Corot: Peintures et dessins des collections françaises. Exh. cat., Orangerie des Tuileries. Paris, 1975, p. 88, under no. 78.
Lydie Huyghe in René Huyghe. La Relève de l'imaginaire. La Peinture française au XIXe siècle: Réalisme, romantisme. Paris, 1976, p. 470.
Antoine Terrasse. L'Univers de Théodore Rousseau. Paris, 1976, pp. 62, 64.
Hans-Peter Bühler. Die Schule von Barbizon: Französische Landschaftmalerei im 19. Jahrhundert. Munich, 1979, fig. 104, dates it about 1855.
Claudia Denk inCorot, Courbet und die Maler von Barbizon: "Les amis de la nature". Ed. Christoph Heilmann, Michael Clarke, and John Sillevis. Exh. cat., Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen and Haus der Kunst München. Munich, 1996, pp. 328–29, no. B 140, ill. (color), dates it about 1863.
Michel Schulman with the collaboration of Marie Bataillès in and Virginie Sérafino inThéodore Rousseau, 1812–1867: Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre graphique. Paris, 1997, ill. p. 49 (color).
Michel Schulman with Marie Bataillès. Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867: Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint. Paris, 1999, p. 323, no. 636, ill. (color), calls it "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne" and dates it about 1863.
Simon Kelly. "The Landscapes of Théodore Rousseau and their Market." Barbizon: Malerei der Natur—Natur der Malerei. Ed. Andreas Burmester et al. Munich, 1999, pp. 423–24, 433 n. 41, colorpl. 80, calls it "Sunset on the Plain of Arbonne (Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne)" and dates it to the early 1860s; describes it as a "private work" and notes that Rousseau did not exhibit it; states that Alfred Sensier bought it at the artist's 1868 estate sale, adding that he preferred its loose handling to the more meticulous facture characteristic of the 1850s.
Greg M. Thomas. Art and Ecology in Nineteenth-Century France: The Landscapes of Théodore Rousseau. Princeton, 2000, pp. 25, 71, 182, 257 n. 95, fig. 86, dates it about 1840s [erroneously cites Nicholas Green's dating of MMA 25.110.52 to 1844 as evidence for the date of this picture]; identifies the site as south of Barbizon, between Franchard and the village of Arbonne.
Thomas (2000) identifies this view as a plain south of Barbizon, between Franchard and the village of Arbonne.
There is an engraving after the painting by Greux (see Silvestre 1873).
In addition to the painting mentioned in the Provenance, Alfred Sensier bought another work of comparable description at the 1868 Rousseau estate sale, no. 41, "Rochers dans la plaine de Barbizon – Soleil couchant (ébauche)," 1862, 69 x 98 cm, for 620 Fr.