Small portable Qur'ans like this could serve several functions. Mostly, they were used as amulets. They were also used as talismanic pendants attached to Ottoman alems or military standards. Although difficult to read because of their miniature size, these Qur'ans were thought to have powerful protective properties and considered objects of devotion, and were meant to be read.
Joseph W. Drexel, New York (until d. 1888); his widow, Lucy Wharton Drexel(1888–89; gifted to Museum in Joseph Drexel's name)