Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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Dragon-Handled Jug with Inscription

Object Name:
Ewer
Date:
late 15th– first quarter 16th century
Geography:
Attributed to present-day Afghanistan, probably Herat
Culture:
Islamic
Medium:
Brass; cast and turned, engraved, and inlaid with silver, gold, and black organic compound
Dimensions:
Ht. 5 5/8 in. (14.3 cm) Max. Diam. 6 1/8 in. (15.6 cm) Diam. of Rim: 3 3/8 in. (8.6 cm) Diam. of base: 5 1/2 in. (14 cm)
Classification:
Metal
Credit Line:
Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891
Accession Number:
91.1.607
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 455
This elegantly-formed jug with dragon-headed handle is covered with intricate silver and gold inlay, including a minute inscription around the base of its neck. It is inscribed with an invocation to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad. As the Shi'i Muslim community holds a special reverence for 'Ali, scholars have suggested that this jug may have been created in the early 16th century, for a follower of the Shi'i Safavid dynasty.
Small pot-bellied jugs (mashraba) such as this example are among the best-known types of Iranian metalwork. Although this jug has lost the lid that survives in several related examples, it retains the characteristic dragon-shaped handle associated with the type. The primary decoration consists of three stacked bands of gold-inlaid medallions: two rows of large medallions encircling the body and one row of smaller medallions around the neck. Set against a silver background, these gold decorations produce a lively two-toned effect, further enhanced by scrolling arabesques distributed in the interstitial spaces of both neck and body.

The form of this jug is widely found across Asia. Chinese potters of the Ming period (1368–1644) produced blue-and-white ceramic pot-bellied jugs with dragon-shaped handles during the first half of the fifteenth century. In Central and western Asia, the form became increasingly popular after the Mongol conquests, and particularly under the Timurids and Safavids, although it is still not known whether the earliest examples were ceramic, metalwork, or stone. The most celebrated example is an elaborate jade jug made for Ulugh Beg (d. 1449) datable to the second quarter of the fifteenth century. The presence of these jugs at the Timurid court is well documented in historical sources, as well as in illustrated manuscripts of the time. That the form was eventually imitated by Ottoman metalworkers is demonstrated by a number of sixteenth-century examples.

While the form remained relatively unchanged throughout the history of its production, the surface decoration and inscription of the present example indicate that it was probably produced either at the end of the fifteenth century or in the first quarter of the sixteenth century. Although it has been argued that the naskhi inscription, which invokes ‘Ali as a source of comfort and the soul’s companion, definitively establishes the jug as an early Safavid piece with strong Shi‘i associations, production within a Sunni context in the late Timurid period is also equally possible. Such an attribution has been suggested for a jade signet ring with the same inscription that is also in the Museum’s collection (12.224.6, cat. 134). Since neither the jug nor the ring is dated, both works raise similar questions of dating and attribution.

Francesca Leoni (author) in [Ekhtiar, Soucek, Canby, and Haidar 2011]
Inscription: Around molded collar in Arabic in naskhi script:
ناد علیاً مظهر العجائبی
تجده عوناً لك في النوائبي
کل هم و غم سینجلي
بولایتك یا علي یا علي یا علي
Call upon ‘Ali, the revealer of miracles made manifest,
You will find him a comfort to you in times of misfortune
All grief and sorrows will disappear through your
O ‘Ali, O ‘Ali, O ‘Ali
Edward C. Moore (American, New York 1827–1891 New York), New York (until d. 1891; bequeathed to MMA)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "A King's Book of Kings: Persian Miniatures from Shah Tahmasp's Shahnama of 1528," May 4, 1972–December 31, 1972, no catalog.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Nature of Islamic Ornament Part II: Vegetal Patterns," September 10, 1998–January 10, 1999, no catalogue.

Ettinghausen, Richard. "Islamic Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin vol. 33, no. 1 (Spring 1975). p. 34, ill. p. 34 (b/w).

Welch, Stuart Cary. The Islamic World. vol. 11. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. p. 89, ill. fig. 68 (color).

de Montebello, Philippe, and Kathleen Howard, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. 6th ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992. p. 322, ill. fig. 26 (color).

Ekhtiar, Maryam, Sheila R. Canby, Navina Haidar, and Priscilla P. Soucek, ed. Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1st ed. ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. no. 132, pp. 171, 194-195, ill. p. 194 (color).

Canby, Sheila R. The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp: The Persian Book of Kings. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014. p. 22, ill. fig. 1 (color).



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