Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

南宋 金處士 十王圖 軸(之三)
Ten Kings of Hell

Artist:
Jin Chushi (Chinese, active late 12th century)
Period:
Song dynasty (960–1279)
Date:
before 1195
Culture:
China
Medium:
One of five of a set of ten hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk
Dimensions:
Image: 51 x 19 1/2 in. (129.5 x 49.5 cm) Overall with knobs: 80 x 27 1/2 in. (203.2 x 69.9 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1929
Accession Number:
30.76.292
Not on view
This is one from a set of scrolls (30.76.290–.294) illustrating the theme of the Ten Kings of Hell, which developed during the second half of the Tang dynasty (618–907). The theme transforms the Indian Buddhist view of judgment after death into a typically Chinese bureaucratic process. Before being permitted to transmigrate into the next life, a soul is tried by a different king each week for seven weeks; it is sent to the eighth king on the hundredth day, to the ninth after a year, and to the tenth the third year after death. Here, each scroll shows a king-assisted by a scribe and other officials-examining and passing sentence on the souls of the dead; in the foreground demons punish the wicked.

Most extant Song and Yuan dynasty Buddhist paintings were preserved in Japan; many had been taken there from Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, an important port city for Japanese merchants and pilgrims. Inscriptions on the present paintings state that they were made in the studio of Jin Chushi, a Buddhist layman in Mingzhou, the name for Ningbo before it was changed to Qingyuanfu in 1195; the paintings, therefore, must date prior to that year. Stylistically, they are extremely close to The Five Hundred Luohans in the Zen Buddhist temple Daitokuji, Kyoto, which were also made in Ningbo and are dated 1178. The vivid drawing and the intense colors of these works are typical of the best Buddhist narrative paintings of the period.
Inscription: Artist’s inscription and signature (1 column in standard script):

Painted by the household of Jin Chushi, Carriage Bridge West, Mingzhou [Ningbo], in the Great Song dynasty.

大宋明州車橋西金處士家畫。
Related Objects

Ten Kings of Hell

Artist: Jin Chushi (Chinese, active late 12th century) Date: before 1195 Medium: One of five of a set of ten hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk Accession: 30.76.291 On view in:Not on view

Ten Kings of Hell

Artist: Jin Chushi (Chinese, active late 12th century) Date: before 1195 Medium: One of five of a set of ten hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk Accession: 30.76.290 On view in:Not on view

Ten Kings of Hell

Artist: Jin Chushi (Chinese, active late 12th century) Date: before 1195 Medium: One of five of a set of ten hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk Accession: 30.76.293 On view in:Not on view

Ten Kings of Hell

Artist: Jin Chushi (Chinese, active late 12th century) Date: before 1195 Medium: One of five of a set of ten hanging scrolls; ink and color on silk Accession: 30.76.294 On view in:Not on view