明 佚名 北斗中斗本命星君衆圖 軸 Star Deities of the Northern and Central Dippers
Unidentified Artist Chinese, active mid-15th century
Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Jingtai period (1450–56)
Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk
Image: 54 11/16 x 30 9/16 in. (138.9 x 77.6 cm)
Overall with mounting: 104 5/8 x 38 in. (265.7 x 96.5 cm)
Overall with knobs: 104 5/8 x 42 1/8 in. (265.7 x 107 cm)
Gift of Oscar L. Tang Family, 2012
Not on view
This depiction of Daoist deities was once part of a set of paintings used in the Buddhist water-and-land ritual and commissioned by the emperor, as attested to by the inscription in the lower left: "By imperial order, directed and supervised by the senior eunuchs of the Directorate of the Imperial Household Service, Shang Yi, Wang Qin, and others." The identity of the deities is given in a second inscription, written in gold, along the right-hand margin: "Portrait of the Northern Dipper, Central Dipper, and Root Destiny Star Lords."
According to the scholar Shawn Eichman, there are five "dipper" constellations in Daoist astronomy, with the Central Dipper as the leader and the Northern Dipper responsible for removing names from the records of death. In this depiction, the seven star gods of the Central Dipper are shown in the lower register wearing regal robes and crowns, while the nine stars of the Northern Dipper, including two hidden stars, wear less formal robes and occupy the middle register. Eichman identifies the small figure with two attendants at the upper right as the Root Destiny Officer, who descends to earth to accept offerings on the cyclical anniversary of each person's birth (see Stephen Little with Shawn Eichman, Taoism and the Arts of China [Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago, 2000], p. 248).
Inscription: Artists’ inscriptions
1. 1 column in standard script:
Star Deities of the Northern and Central Dippers
2. 2 columns in standard script:
Eunuchs of the Directorate of the Imperial Household Service Shang Yi, Wang Qin, and the others supervised the production [of this painting] by imperial order.
3. 3 columns in standard script, dated 1454:
Executed on the third day of the eighth month in the fifth year of the Jingtai era of the great Ming dynasty (1454)
Art Institute of Chicago. "Taoism and the Arts of China," November 4, 2000–January 7, 2001.
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "Taoism and the Arts of China," February 21, 2001–May 13, 2001.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "A Millennium of Chinese Painting: Masterpieces from the Permanent Collection," September 8, 2001–January 13, 2002.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Chinese Painting, Masterpieces from the Permanent Collection," August 28, 2004–February 20, 2005.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Secular and Sacred: Scholars, Deities, and Immortals in Chinese Art," September 10, 2005–January 8, 2006.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Bridging East and West: The Chinese Diaspora and Lin Yutang," September 15, 2007–February 10, 2008.