Kalamkari Hanging with Figures in an Architectural Setting
Attributed to India, Deccan
Cotton; plain weave, mordant-painted and dyed, resist-dyed
Textile: L. 100 in. (254 cm)
W. 78 in. (198.1 cm)
L. 107 1/8 in. (272.1 cm)
W. 85 in. (215.9 cm)
D. 2 1/2 inches (6.4 kg)
Weight: 208 lbs (94.3 kg)
Textiles-Painted and/or Printed
Gift of Mrs. Albert Blum, 1920
Not on view
Kalamkari, a multistep process for dying textiles by applying each color with a stylus (kalam) or by using resists, is a specialty of the Deccan region of India. Although the region produced many types of dyed textiles for export to Europe and Southeast Asia between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, this hanging is one of a small group decorated with multiple figures, made only in the early 1600s. This particular hanging was once attached to several other similar panels, and was probably used as a backdrop for royal ceremonies. Later the hanging was cut down and borders were added from two other textiles.
Two Kalamkari hangings: nos. MMA 20.79 and Victoria and Albert Museum, London 687-1898.
The figures on these two panels, once part of the same large hanging, include men and women in an array of fashions indicating their origins in Armenia, India, Iran, and western Europe. The somewhat naive depiction of figures and architectural features is quite different from that displayed in court painting of the time, but this can be explained by the fact that, similar to carpets and arms, these dyed textiles were not direct products of the court but rather created in places where the necessary materials were available. Yet, they provide interesting evidence for the circulation of European art in the Deccan, in addition to what can be gleaned from works on paper: the equestrian figure in The Metropolitan Museum of Art hanging (20.79) directly quotes an English portrait type of the 1620s and 1630s; while the men in the Victoria and Albert Museum’s hanging (687-1898) appear from their clothing to be Dutch of the same era and reproduced from an as-yet-unidentified source.
These panels, now in New York and London, were cut apart and framed with blue- and white-ground chintzes sometime in the nineteenth century. Using a textile of similar scale and layout from the Calico Museum of Textiles, Ahmedabad, as a guide, one can reconstruct the original textile to which these fragments belonged: a grand hanging of approximately twenty-five feet in length with several panels like these flanking a central panel with figures on a larger scale. It was likely used to create an outdoor enclosure of the type used on special occasions in Hyderabad. A precursor to this type of tent lining in the Brooklyn Museum, dated to the 1620s, consists of seven adjoining panels, each with figures of a different ethnicity.
The effect of the enclosed space created by the hangings, in which viewers would have been surrounded by an array of figures from Indian, Persian, and European worlds, must have been overwhelming but seems to relate to an aesthetic that was widespread in the Deccan for covering the walls of palaces with paintings or textiles in a medley of subjects—great rulers, literary figures, angels, musicians, and dancers. Comparable works were also made for use in the Vijayanagara realms, and they also found a market in northern India. While neither of these panels has Amber inventory marks, the Calico Museum example includes such a mark.
Marika Sardar in (Haidar and Sardar 2015)
1- See the more detailed discussion in Sardar, Marika "A Seventeenth-Century Kalamkari Hanging at The Metropolitan Museum of Art." In Haidar and Sardar 2011, pp. 148–61.
2- Both as identified by Irwin, John "Golconda Cotton Paintings of the Early Seventeenth Century.” Lalit Kalā, no. 5 (April), 1959, pp. 36–37.
3- Further fragments of this hanging or a related hanging may be identified in other museum collections, for example, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (39.8.1), and Victoria and Albert Museum, London (IS.16-1956).
4- Nina Gwatkin in Gittinger, "Master Dyers to the World: Technique and Trade in Early Indian Dyed Cotton Textiles." With contributions by Nina Gwatkin. Exh. cat. Textile Museum, Washington, D.C.; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and Asia Society Gallery, New York. Washington, D.C.: Textile Museum. 1982, pp. 89–108.
5- One, formerly in a Japanese collection (Irwin 1959, pp. 32–33, fig. 1), the other now held by the Association pour l’Étude et la Documentation des Textiles d’Asie, Paris (2221).
Mrs. Albert Blum, New York (until 1920; gifted to MMA)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Indian Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," January 18, 1973–April 1, 1973, no catalogue.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "INDIA !," September 14, 1985, no. 212.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Sultans of Deccan India, 1500-1700: Opulence and Fantasy," April 20, 2015–July 26, 2015, no. 163.
"Goldonda Cotton Paintings of the Early Seventeenth Century." Lalit Kala vol. 5 (1959). p. 37, ill. pl. 5 (b/w).
Welch, Stuart Cary. "Art and Culture 1300–1900." In India!. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1985. no. 212, pp. 315-316, ill., p. 315 (b/w), p. 316 (color detail).
Welch, Stuart Cary. The Islamic World. vol. 11. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. pp. 154-55, ill. fig. 119 (color).
Ekhtiar, Maryam, Sheila R. Canby, Navina Haidar, and Priscilla P. Soucek, ed. Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1st ed. ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. no. 279, pp. 341, 392-394, ill. p. 393 (color).
Haidar, Navina, and Marika Sardar. "The Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia." In Sultans of the South: Art of India's Deccan Courts. Brugge, Belgium: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. pp. 150, 151, 153, ill. figs. 1, 2, 4.
Haidar, Navina, and Marika Sardar. "Opulence and Fantasy." In Sultans of Deccan India 1500–1700. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2015. no. 163, p. 274, ill. pl. 163 (color).