Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II (r. 1580–1627) was the sixth ruler of Bijapur, a kingdom in the Deccan region of India. It has been argued that the artist Hashim, who painted this likeness, joined the Mughal imperial atelier around 1620, after serving in the Deccan. Whereas the strong contours, costume details, and palette are considered to be vestiges of Hashim’s Deccani origins, his thoroughly Mughal rendering of facial features is attributed to changes made under Jahangir’s guidance.
Signature: 18.104.22.168 recto: In Persian, in lower left triangle: Written by Mir 'Ali.
Inscription: 22.214.171.124 verso: In Persian, along left side of portrait (in Jahangir's hand): "A good portrait of Ibrahim 'Adil Khan" In Persian, under portrait (in Shah Jahan's hand): "Work of Hashim"
Marking: 126.96.36.199 verso: Margin number '51' is inscribed in the gilt margin.
Jack S. Rofe, Scotland (in 1929; sale, Sotheby's London,December 12, 1929, to Kevorkian); [ Hagop Kevorkian, New York, from 1929]; [ Kevorkian Foundation, New York, until 1955; gift and sale to MMA]
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Emperor's Album: Images of Mughal India," October 21, 1987–February 14, 1988, nos. 35 and 36.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Sultan Ali of Mashhad, Master of Nasta'liq," January 19, 2001–May 27, 2001, no catalogue.
Skelton, Robert. "Documents for the Study of Painting at Bijapur in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries." Arts Asiatiques vol. 5 (1958). p. 103, ill. fig. 3 (b/w).
Swietochowski, Marie, and Richard Ettinghausen. "Islamic Painting." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., vol. 36, no. 2 (Autumn 1978). p. 40, ill. p. 40 (b/w).
Welch, Stuart Cary, Annemarie Schimmel, Marie Lukens Swietochowski, and Wheeler M. Thackston. The Emperors' Album: Images of Mughal India. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. no. nos. 35, 36, pp. 153-157, ill., verso pl. 35 (b/w); recto pl. 36 (b/w).
Okada, Amina. Imperial Mughal Painters: Indian Miniatures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Paris: Flammarion, 1992. p. 151, ill. fig. 175 (color), verso.
Blair, Sheila S. Islamic Calligraphy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Library, 2006. pp. 431-432, ill. fig. 10.6 (color.