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明 文徵明 東林避暑圖 卷
Summer Retreat in the Eastern Grove

Artist:
Wen Zhengming (Chinese, 1470–1559)
Period:
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
Date:
datable to before 1515
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink on paper
Dimensions:
Image (painting): 12 1/2 x 42 1/2 in. (31.8 x 108 cm) Image (colophon): 12 1/2 x 38 3/8 in. (31.8 x 97.5 cm) Overall with mounting: 13 x 117 1/2 in. (33 x 298.5 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
1989.363.60
Not on view
This poem, written in the running-script style of Huang Tingjian (1045–1105), is one of two poems by Wen appended to this painting. Both texts reveal Wen Zhengming's early study of the Northern Song master's large-scale calligraphy. Wen Zhengming devoted his life to the revival and creative reinterpretation of the expressive traditions of Song and Yuan painting and calligraphy. Wen particularly admired the writing style of Huang Tingjian, a passion he acquired from his mentor Shen Zhou (1427–1509). Wen's bold calligraphy stands in marked contrast to the officially sanctioned standard-script style practiced by court bureaucrats and reflects his independent nature.

A final colophon by Wen explains the circumstances surrounding the poems' creation. Wen wrote the poems in 1512 for his friend Qian Tongai (1475–1549). The poems were subsequently acquired by Nanzhou, abbot of the Tianwang Temple. When Wen visited Nanzhou in 1515 he saw his poems and appended his colophon.
Inscription: Artist's inscriptions and signature

(1 column in semi-cursive script, on the left-end of the pa)

雁門文壁寫。

(3 poems in 55 columns in semi-cursive and cursive scripts, datable to 1512, followed by a colophon in 8 columns, dated 1515):

澤國春深霧雨收,越城橋畔水爭流。
斷烟西去浮蒼靄[點去]嶼,斜日中川起白鷗。
邨店寂寥寒食節,行人迢遞木蘭舟。
芳情滿目東風急,欲采汀花不自由。
寒食石湖舟中作

郭外青烟柳帶柔,洞庭西去水悠悠。
故人不見沙掌楫,燕子齊飛杜若洲。
日落晚風吹宿酒,天寒江草喚新愁。
佳期寂寞春如許,孤負山花插滿頭。
上巳日獨行溪上有懷

高齋落日偶追從,罇酒淹留一笑中。
芳草滿庭飛燕子,晚涼和雨在梧桐。
江魚繞筯肥烹玉,綠樹藏春淺暎紅。
潦倒不嫌歸更緩,習家池館愛山公。
湯氏園亭對雨小酌

文壁徵明甫書于錢氏西園之碧筠深處。

往嵗在孔周[1] 處書此,乃不知是南洲所求。乙亥[1515]九月廿又四日偶過天王寺覽之,不覺愴然,蓋拒書時三年矣。歲月于邁,聰明日衰,不知向後更能作此否。徵明重題。

Artist’s seals
Wen Zhengming yin 文徵明印
Hengshan 衡山

Frontispiece

Wu Yi 吳奕 (1472–1559), 4 large characters in seal script followed by 2 columns in semi-cursive script, undated:

東林避暑
吳奕為南州尊宿書。

Colophon

Pan Boying 潘伯鷹 (1903–1966), 5 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 2 seal:

文待詔山水橫卷取景雲林,而中含梅道人消息。其後自書詩三首,辭既俊逸,其書勢始運山谷,頃之縱筆乃入醉僧,末復學東坡,便似〈洞庭春色〉賦,觀公自跋頗疑而後不復能為,則其得意可知也。余又嘗見公大字自書七言古詩橫卷,純用南宮筆法,奇肆之極,信知古人好學之[點去]轉益多師如此。後學潘伯鷹審定真跡題記。 [印]: 墨者、潘伯鷹

Collectors' seals

Qing emperor Qianlong 清帝乾隆 (r. 1736–1795)
乾隆御覽之寳
石渠寳笈
寳笈三編
三希堂精鋻璽
宜子孫

Qing emperor Jiaqing 清帝嘉慶 (r. 1796–1820)
嘉慶御覽之寳
嘉慶鋻賞

Puyi 溥儀 (1906–1967)
宣統御覽之寳

Pan Boying 潘伯鷹 (1903–1966)
潘伯鷹印
潘伯鷹所見金石書畫

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
顧洛阜
漢光閣
漢光閣主顧洛阜鋻藏中國古代書畫之章

Unidentified
范陽
行遠


[1] 孔周,即錢同愛(1475–1549),字孔周,號野亭,江蘇蘇州人。
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