Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

Book Cover (?) with Ivory Figures

Date:
before 1085
Geography:
Made in Constantinople
Culture:
Spanish
Medium:
Silver-gilt with pseudo-filigree, glass & stone cabochons, cloisonné enamel, Ivory with traces of gilding on pine support
Dimensions:
Overall: 10 1/4 x 7 1/2 x 1 1/4 in. (26.1 x 19 x 3.1 cm) Ivory Corpus: 2 7/8 x 2 11/16 x 9/16 in. (7.3 x 6.8 x 1.5 cm)
Classification:
Ivories-Bone
Credit Line:
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917
Accession Number:
17.190.33
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 304
Byzantine ivories were highly prized in western Europe, where they survived in church treasuries or were incorporated into deluxe book bindings. The ivory from the panel on the left originally formed the center of a Byzantine three-paneled icon. It may have been one of the many gifts to the Monastery of Santa Cruz de la Serós, which was founded by Queen Felicia (d. 1085), wife of Sancho V Ramírez (r. 1076–94), king of Aragon and Navarre. The sumptuous cover also contains a sapphire seal, located to the right of Saint John. The other cover is inscribed with Felicia's name, below the ivory crucifix, inscribed in Arabic with four of the ninety-nine "Beautiful Names" of God.
Inscription: I H C / NA/SAR/EN(V)S, FELI/CIA/REG/INA
From the Benedictine convent of Santa Cruz de la Serós, Jaca; Charles Stein(?), Paris; Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael, 12th Baronet of Castle Craig, Castle Craig, N.B., Scotland (sold 1902); Carmichael sale, Christie's, Manson & Woods, London(May 12–13, 1902, no. 35); J. Pierpont Morgan, London and New York
Huesca, Ramón de. Teatro histórico de las Iglesias del Reyno de Aragón. Vol. 8. Pamplona, 1802. p. 332.

Exposición Histórico-Europea, 1892 à 1893: Catálogo General. Madrid: Establecimiento Tipográfico de Fortanet, 1893. Sala IX, no. 25.

de Leguina y Vidal, Enrique. "Encuadernaciones Romano-bizantinas." Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones 2, no. 24 (February 1895). pp. 246–47, ill.

Carmichael, Thomas Gibson. "Art Objects: Early Bronzes, Ivories and Enamels." In Nineteenth Century Art with Illustrations from Pictures and Objects in the Fine Art Loan Collection of the Glasgow International Exhibition, edited by D. S. MacColl. Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons, 1902. p. 200.

Catalogue of the well-known collection of works of art of the Classic, Medieval and Renaissance times formed by Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael. London: Christie, Manson & Woods, May 12–13, 1902. no. 35, p. 15, ill.

Sentenach y Cabañes, Narciso. "Bosquejo Histórico sobre la orfebrería española." Revista de archivos, bibliotecas y museos 12, nos. 7–8 (July–August 1908). p. 9, pl. 1.

de Leguina y Vidal, Enrique. Esmaltes españoles: Los frontales de Orense, San Miguel, 'in Excelsis,' Silos y Burgos. Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fé, 1909. p. 87.

Altadill, Julio. "El retablo de San Miguel in excelsis." Boletín de la comisión de monumentos históricos y artísticos de Navarra, 2nd ser., 14 (April 1913). p. 118.

Arco y Garay, Ricardo del. "El monasterio de Santa Cruz de la Serós." Linajes de Aragón 4, no. 22 (November 15, 1913). pp. 436–37.

Arco y Garay, Ricardo del. "Libros corales, códices y otros manuscritos de la Catedral de Huesca." Linajes de Aragón 6 (1915). p. 243 n. 2.

Arco y Garay, Ricardo del. La Covadonga de Aragón: El real monasterio de San Juan de la Peña. Jaca: Francisco de las Heras, 1919. pp. 145–46.

Breck, Joseph. "Pre-Gothic Ivories in the Pierpont Morgan Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, o.s., 15, no. 1 (January 1920). p. 16.

Breck, Joseph. "Spanish Ivories of the XI and XII Centuries in the Pierpont Morgan Collection." American Journal of Archaeology 24, no. 3 (July–September 1920). pp. 223–25, fig. 3.

Porter, Arthur Kingsley. Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads. Vol. 1. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1923. pp. 37, 41, 48, 52, (as no. 519).

Porter, Arthur Kingsley. Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads. Vol. 5. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1923. p. 5, pl. 519.

Breck, Joseph, and Meyric R. Rogers. The Pierpont Morgan Wing: A Handbook. 1st ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1925. pp. 51–52.

Goldschmidt, Adolph. Die Elfenbeinskulpturen aus der romanischen Zeit, XI.-XIII. Jahrhundert. Vol. 4. Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1926. no. 110, pp. 2, 33, pl. XXXVIII.

Porter, Arthur Kingsley. "Leonesque Romanesque and Southern France." The Art Bulletin 8, no. 4 (June 1926). p. 240.

Ferrandis Torres, José. Marfiles y Azabaches Españoles. Barcelona: Editorial Labor, S.A., 1928. pp. 136, 175, 178–79, pl. LV.

Breck, Joseph, and Meyric R. Rogers. The Pierpont Morgan Wing: A Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1929. pp. 51–52.

Carmichael, Mary Helen Elizabeth, and Thomas Gibson Carmichael. Lord Carmichael of Skirling: A Memoir Prepared by his Wife. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1929. p. 295, ill. opp. p. 294.

Huici Lazcano, Serapio, and Victoriano Juaristi Sagarzazu. El santuario de San Miguel de Excelsis (Navarrá) y su retablo esmaltado. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1929. p. 58.

Contreras, Juan de Marqués de Lozoya. Historia del arte hispánico. Vol. 1. Barcelona: Salvat Editores, 1931. p. 495, pl. XLVIII.

Gómez-Moreno, Manuel. El arte románico español: esquema de un libro. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Históricos, 1934. p. 26, pls. XXX, XLIII.

Hildburgh, Walter L. Dr. Medieval Spanish Enamels and Their Relation to the Origin and the Development of Copper Champlevé Enamels of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. London: Oxford University Press, 1936. p. 33, pl. X, fig. 11 (detail of enamel).

Thomas, Henry. Early Spanish Bookbindings, XI-XV Centuries. Illustrated monographs, Vol. 23. Oxford University Press, 1939. p. 5, pl. I.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Mediaeval Jewelry: A Picture Book. New York: Museum Press Limited, 1940. pl. 14.

Arco y Garay, Ricardo del. Huesca. Catálogo monumental de España. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto "Diego Velázquez", 1942. pp. 360–61.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Mediaeval Jewelry: A Picture Book. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944. pl. 14.

Pijoán, José. Summa artis: Historia general del arte. Volume 9, El arte románico, siglos XI y XII. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1944. p. 102, fig. 147.

López Serrano, Matilde. "Evangeliarios de Navarra." Príncipe de Viana 8, no. 26 (1947). p. 22.

Cook, Walter W.S., and José Gudiol Ricart. Pintura e imaginería románicas. Ars Hispaniae, Vol. 6. 1st ed. Madrid: Editorial Plus Ultra S. A., 1950. p. 293, fig. 282.

Steenbock, Frauke. Der kirchliche Prachteinband im frühen Mittelalter: von den Anfängen bis zum Beginn der Gotik. Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenshcaft, 1965. no. 68, pp. 160–61, fig. 95.

Beckwith, John. The Adoration of the Magi in Whalebone. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1966. pp. 5, 9, fig. 10.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the Presence of Kings: Royal Treasures from the Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1967. no. 11.

Lasko, Peter. Ars Sacra, 800-1200. 1st ed. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972. pp. 154, 289 n. 35.

Grodecki, Louis, ed. Die Zeit der Ottonen und Salier. Universum der Kunst, Vol. 20. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, 1973. p. 337, fig. 357.

Bousquet, Jacques. "Les Ivoires espagnols du milieu du XIe siècle: Leur position historique et artistique." Les Cahiers de Saint-Michel de Cuxa 10 (1979). pp. 40–41.

Yarza Luaces, Joaquín. Historia del arte hispánico: Volume 2, La edad media. 2nd ed. Madrid: Alhambra, 1982. pp. 133, 136.

Hürkey, Edgar J. Das Bild des Gekreuzigten im Mittelalter: Untersuchungen zu Gruppierung, Entwicklung und Verbreitung anhand der Gewandmotive. Worms: Werner'sche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1983. no. 171, p. 198, fig. 171.

Estella Marcos, Margarita M. La Escultura del Marfil en España: Romántica y Gótica. Artes del tiempo y del espacio. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1984. pp. 59–60, 73, fig. 11.

Frazer, Margaret English. "Medieval Church Treasuries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 43, no. 3 (Winter 1985-1986). p. 18, fig. 12.

Naval Mas, Antonio. "Evangeliario de Jaca, en Nueva York." Cuadernos Altoaragones 190 (June 16, 1991). p. v, ill.

Schellewald, Barbara. "Die Ordnung einer Bilderwert: Bilder und Bildprogramme in Byzanz im 10. und 11. Jahrhundert." In Kaiserin Theophanu: Begegnung des Ostens und Westens um die Wende des ersten Jahrtausends. Gedenkschrift des Kölner Schnütgen-Museums zum 1000, edited by Anton von Euw, and Peter Schreiner. Vol. 2. Cologne: Museum Schnütgen, 1991. p. 45, fig. 8.

Little, Charles T., ed. The Art of Medieval Spain, A.D. 500–1200. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. no. 128, pp. 268–69.

Lasko, Peter. Ars Sacra, 800-1200. 2nd ed. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. p. 160.

Evans, Helen C., and William D. Wixom, ed. The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843–1261. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. p. 466.

Bango Torviso, Isidro, ed. Sancho el Mayor y sus herederos: el linaje que europeizó los reinos hispanos. Vol. 1. Madrid: Tf. Editores, 2006. no. 116, pp. 292–96.

Pardo, Francisco Fernández. Dispersión y Destrucción del Patrimonio Artístico Español. Vol. 3. 1st ed. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 2007. fig. XLV.

Abenza Soria, Verónica Carla. "El Díptic de Jaca i la reina Felicia de Roucy." In Síntesi: Quaderns dels Seminaris de Besalú. Vol. 2. 2014. pp. 28–53, fig. 1, 4, 7, 11.

Álvarez da Silva, Noemi. "El trabajo de marfil en la España del siglo XI." PhD diss., Universidad de León, 2014. pp. 9, 307, 318–29, fig. 13, 283.

García García, Francisco de Asís. "Prototipos, réplicas y derivaciones en la escultura románica de Aragón." In Modelo, copia y evocación en el románico hispánico. Aguilar de Campoo: Fundacion Santa Maria la Real, 2016. pp. 56–57, fig. 5.

Lema Bendaña, Xosé R. "Encuadernación en el Románico." Románico: Revista de arte de Amigos del Románico 22 (June 2016). p. 41, fig. 2.



Related Objects

Medallion with Saint George from an Icon Frame

Date: ca. 1100 Medium: Gold, silver, and enamel worked in cloisonné Accession: 17.190.674 On view in:Gallery 303

Medallion with Saint John the Evangelist from an Icon Frame

Date: ca. 1100 Medium: Gold, silver, and enamel worked in cloisonné Accession: 17.190.676 On view in:Gallery 303

Medallion with Saint John the Baptist from an Icon Frame

Date: ca. 1100 Medium: Gold, silver, and enamel worked in cloisonné Accession: 17.190.677 On view in:Gallery 303

Medallion with Saint Peter from an Icon Frame

Date: ca. 1100 Medium: Gold, silver, and enamel worked in cloisonné Accession: 17.190.670 On view in:Gallery 303

Medallion with Saint Luke from an Icon Frame

Date: ca. 1100 Medium: Gold, silver, and enamel worked in cloisonné Accession: 17.190.671 On view in:Gallery 303