Small brooches, often in whimsical animal forms, were worn both by Roman soldiers stationed in the provinces and by the native population. Though brooches in these forms appear throughout the Roman world, the distribution of finds and the archaeological remains of workshops suggest that the major centers of production were Britain and Gaul.
Julien Gréau, Paris; J. Pierpont Morgan, London and New York (until 1917)
Ricketson, Edith B. "Barbarian Jewelry of the Merovingian Period." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 5, no. 5 (January 1947). p. 138.